1133 The Saxon North Mark (Brandenburg) conferred upon Albert the Bear.

1147 Foundation of Moscow.

1186 The Brandenburg Margraves establish a claim on Pomerania.

1226 The Culm lands given to Hermann of Salza and the German Order.

1226 The Margraves of Brandenburg acquire the Spree district. Foundation of Berlin follows.

1255 Building of Königsberg.

1311 The German Order secures Danzig.

1324-73 The Mark Brandenburg subject to the House of Wittelsbach.

1343 Peace of Kalisch between the German Order aud Poland.

1374 The Mark Brandenburg united to the Bohemian Crown.

1385-8 Brandenburg mortgaged to the Margraves of Moravia.

1410 Polish victory over the German Knights at Tannenberg.

1411 First Peace of Thorn between Poland and the German Order.

1417 Investment of Frederick of Hohenzollern with the margravate of Brandenburg.

1466 The Second or Perpetual Peace of Thorn between Poland and the German Order.

1472 Marriage of Ivan III of Russia and the Greek Princess Sophia.

1473 February. The Brandenburg Dispositio Achillea.

1503 Death of Alexander VI. Accession of Julius II.

1508 Luther goes to Wittenberg.

1509 Accession of Henry VIII in England.

1511 Synod of Pisa.

1512 Opening of the Fifth Lateran Council.

1513 Accession of Christian II in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

1513 Death of Julius II. Accession of Giovanni de' Medici as Leo X.

1515 Death of Louis XII of France. Accession of Francis I.

1515 Battle of Marignano (September 13).

1517 Charles V goes to Spain.

1517 Close of the Fifth Lateran Council.

1517 Publication of Luther's Theses (November).

1518 Death of Ferdinand of Aragon,

1518 French Concordat with Leo X.

1518 Luther before the Cardinal-Legate at Augsburg.

1518 Treaty of Noyon.

1518 Zwingli, people's priest at Zurich.

1519 Death of the Emperor Maximilian (January 19).

1519 Election of Charles to the Empire (June).

1520 Luther excommunicated.

1520 Publication of Luther's Appeal to the Christian Nobility.

1520 Straits of Magellan passed.

1520 The Stockholm Bath of Blood.

1520 Charles V in England (May). Field of Cloth of Gold (June).

1520 Coronation of Charles V at Aachen (October).

1520 Christian crowned King of Sweden (November).

1521 Diet of Worms. Luther placed under the Ban of the Empire.

1521 Rising of Gustaf Eriksson (Gustavus Vasa) in Dalecarlia.

1521 Defeat of the Comuneros at Villalar (April 24).

1521 Treaty of Bruges (August). Albany in Scotland.

1521 Outbreak of war. Occupation of Milan by the forces of Charles and Leo X (November).

1521 Death of Leo X (December 1).

1522 Charles V in Spain.

1522 Conquest of Mexico completed.

1522 Election of Adrian Dedel as Adrian VI.

1522 Luther returns to Wittenberg.

1522 The Knights' War in Germany.

1522 Battle of the Bicocca (April).

1522 Charles V in England. Treaty of Windsor (June).

1522 Capitulation of Rhodes to the Turks (December).

1523 Bonnivet in Italy.

1523 Defection of the Constable of Bourbon.

1523 Election of Giulio de' Medici as Clement VII.

1523 First public disputation at Zurich.

1523 Flight of Christian II from Denmark.

1523 Gustavus Vasa King in Sweden.

1523 Rule of Frederick I (of Holstein) in Denmark and Norway.

1523 Suffolk and van Buren in Picardy.

1523 Death of Adrian VI (September 14).

1524 Albany leaves Scotland for the last time.

1524 Foundation of the Theatine Order.

1524 Francis crosses the Alps.

1524 Invasion of France. Siege of Marseilles.

1524 Retreat of Bonnivet.

1524 Beginning's of the Peasants' Rising in Germany (June).

1525 Albert of Hohenzollern, formerly High Master of the German Order, invested with the secularised duchy of Prussia.

1525 Bábar founds Moghul Empire in India.

1525 Compact of Cracow.

1525 Conspiracy of Girolamo Morone.

1525 Giovio's Muscovy.

1525 Prussia becomes a secular duchy.

1525 Battle of Pavia (February 24).

1525 Treaties of the Moor (August).

1526 Diet and Recess of Speier.

1526 Ferdinand elected King of Bohemia and of Hungary.

1526 Marriage of Charles V with Isabella of Portugal.

1526 The Reformation begins in Denmark.

1526 Treaty of Madrid (January).

1526 League of Cognac (May).

1526 Battle of Mohács (August).

1526 Raid of the Colonna on Rome (September).

1527 Alliance of Henry VIII and Francis I.

1527 Diet of Vesteräs in Sweden. Vesteräs Recess.

1527 Ferdinand crowned King of Hungary.

1527 Invasion of Italy by Lautrec.

1527 Sack of Rome (May 6).

1528 Campeggio in England.

1528 Castiglione's U öortegiano. Andrea álciati summoned to Bourges.

1528 Defection of Andrea Doria.

1528 Siege of Naples by Lautrec.

1528 France and England declare war on the Emperor (January).

1529 Charles V in Italy.

1529 Civil War in Switzerland. First Peace of KappeL

1529 Conference of Marburg.

1529 Diet of Speier. The "Protest."

1529 Execution of Berquin.

1529 Failure of Turkish attack on Vienna.

1529 Fall of Wolsey.

1529 Siege of Vienna by the Turks.

1529 Treaty of Barcelona (June 29).

1529 Peace of Cambray (August 5).

1530 Charles V in Germany. Diet of Augsburg. Confession of Augsburg.

1530 Conference at Bologna (Charles V and Clement VII).

1530 Confession of Augsburg.

1530 Fall of the Florentine Republic.

1530 Last imperial coronation by the Pope.

1530 Revolt against the Bishop at Geneva.

1530 The Grey Leagues obtain possession of the Valtelline.

1530 Capture of Florence (August).

1530 Death of Margaret of Savoy (December)

1531 Ferdinand elected King of the Romans.

1531 Ferdinand elected King of the Romans.

1531 Henry VIII Supreme Head of the Church in England.

1531 League of Schmalkalden.

1531 Maria of Hungary Regent of the Netherlands.

1531 Battle of Kappel and death of Zwingli (October).

1531 Marriage of Catharine de' Medici with Henry of France (October).

1532 Alliance of France and England.

1532 Annates abolished in England.

1532 Charles in Italy.

1532 Conquest of Peru.

1532 Inquisition first established at Lisbon.

1532 Solyman checked at Güns. Andrea Doria seizes Coron.

1532 Turkish invasion repelled.

1532 Religious Peace of Nürnberg (July).

1532 Second Conference at Bologna (December).

1533 Accession of Ivan IV, afterwards crowned Tsar (1647).

1533 Address of Cop, Flight of Calvin.

1533 Catholic League of Halle.

1533 Chaireddin Barbarossa conveys Moors to North Africa. He takes Tunis.

1533 Death of Frederick I of Denmark. Disputed succession.

1533 Death of Pope Clement VII and accession of Paul III.

1533 English Act in restraint of Appeals to Rome.

1533 War between Turkey and Persia. First Austro-Turkish Treaty of Peace.

1533 Wullenwever Burgomaster of Lübeck.

1533 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn (May).

1534 Accession of Alessandro Farnese as Paul III.

1534 Anabaptist rising at Münster.

1534 Duke Ulrich recovers Württemberg.

1534 English Act against Papal Dispensations, &c.

1534 Foundation of the Society of Jesus by Ignatius Loyola.

1534 The Grafenfehde.

1534 The Placards at Paris.

1534-5 Géraldine rebellion in Ireland.

1534 Peace of Cadan (June).

1534 Death of Clement VII (September).

1535 Charles V in Sicily and Naples.

1535 Charles V takes Tunis.

1535 English Act of Supremacy.

1535 Expedition of Tunis.

1535 Death of Francesco Sforza (November).

1536 Alliance between Francis I and the Porte. War between Charles V and Francis I,

1536 Calvin at Ferrara.

1536 Calvin at Geneva.

1536 Christian III established on the throne of Denmark and Norway.

1536 First Helvetic Confession.

1536 Invasion of Provence by Charles V.

1536 Publication of the Ghristianae Religionis Institutio.

1536 Smaller monasteries dissolved in England. The Ten Articles.

1536 Treaty of Francis with Solyman.

1536 Wittenberg-Concord.

1536 Third War between Francis I and Charles V. Savoy occupied by the French (March).

1537 Consilium delectorum GardinaKum de emendanda Ecclesia.

1537 Murder of Alessandro de' Medici. Succession of Cosimo I in Florence.

1537 War between Venice and the Turks.

1538 Calvin expelled from Geneva.

1538 Death of Charles of Gelders.

1538 League of the Pope, Emperor Ferdinand, and Venice against the Turks.

1538 Solyman annexes part of Moldavia.

1538 Catholic League of Nürnberg (June).

1538 Truce of Nice between Charles V and Francis I (June).

1539 Death of Duke George of Saxony.

1539 Joachim II of Brandenburg becomes a Protestant.

1539 Monasteries suppressed in England. Act of the Six Articles.

1539 Revolt of Ghent.

1539 William succeeds to Cleves-Jülich.

1540 Calvin's Institution Chrétienne.

1540 Death of John Zapolya.

1540 Death of King Zápolya of Hungary. Reopening of the Austro-Turkish War.

1540 Edict of Fontainebleau.

1540 Investiture of Philip with Milan.

1540 Marriage and divorce of Anne of Cleves.

1540 Peace between Venice and the Turks.

1540 The Jesuit order approved by Paul III,

1540 Venice makes peace with the Turks.

1540 Reduction of Ghent (February).

1541 Calvin returns to Geneva.

1541 Ireland declared a kingdom.

1541 Religious Colloquy of Ratisbon.

1541 Solyman takes Buda (September).

1541 Expedition against Algiers (October).

1542 Fourth War between Charles and Francis I.

1542 Jesuits Lef'evre and Le Jay in Bavaria.

1542 John Frederick of Saxony and Philip of Hesse overrun Brunswick.

1542 The Inquisition established at Rome.

1542 Death of James V of Scotland (December).

1543 Barbarossa in the Western Mediterranean.

1543 Conquest of Gelders.

1543 Expedition of Charles against the Duke of Cleves.

1543 Reopening of University of Pisa.

1543 Vesalius on Human Anatomy.

1544 Diet of Speier.

1544 Sieges of Boulogne and St Dizier.

1544 Battle of Ceresole (April).

1544 Peace of Crépy (September).

1545 Spread of Calvinism in Poland.

1545 Massacre of the Waldenses of Provence (April).

1545 Opening of the Council of Trent (December).

1546 Alliance of Charles V with Maurice of Saxony.

1546 Diet of Ratisbon.

1546 Execution of the Fourteen of Meaux.

1546 League of Charles V with Paul III.

1546 Peace between France and England.

1546 The Schmalkaldic War.

1546 Death of Luther (February).

1547 Adrien Tournebus Regius Professor of Greek at Paris.

1547 Battle of Pinkie.

1547 Death of Francis I.

1547 Establishment of La Chambre Ardente.

1547 Inquisition finally established at Lisbon.

1547 Peace between Solyman, Ferdinand, France, Venice, and the Pope.

1547 Somerset Protector.

1547 Victory of Charles V over the Protestants at Mühlberg. "Bloody Diet" in Bohemia.

1547 Death of Henry VIII (January). Accession of Edward VI.

1547 Death of Francis I (March). Accession of Henry II.

1547 The Council removes from Trent to Bologna (March).

1547 Battle of Mühlberg (April). Maurice Elector of Saxony.

1547 Diet of Augsburg (September).

1547 Murder of Pierluigi Farnese (September).

1548 Alliance between Scotland and France. Mary Stewart sent to France.

1548 Betrothal of Mary Stewart to the Dauphin Francis.

1548 Bohemian Brethren in Great Poland. Death of Sigismund I of Poland; accession of Sigismund Augustus.

1548 First Prayer-Book of Edward VI.

1548 Murder of Cardinal Beton.

1548 The Augsburg Interim proclaimed (May).

1549 Battle of Dussindale.

1549 Consensus Tigurinus.

1549 Council of Bologna suspended.

1549 Death of Paul III.

1549 Fall of Somerset. Rule of Warwick (Northumberland) in England.

1549 Maximilian acknowledged as successor to Bohemian throne.

1549 Osiander at Königsberg.

1549 War between England and France.

1550 Election of Giovanni Maria del Monte as Julius III.

1550 First Calvinist Synod in Poland.

1550 Ivan IV summons the Sobor.

1550 Maurice of Saxony undertakes to execute the ban against Magdeburg.

1550 Peace between England and France. Boulogne restored to France.

1551 Capture of Tripoli t>y the Turks.

1551 Gotthard Kettler, last Grand Master of Order of Sword, cedes Livonia to

1551 Habsburg Family Compact.

1551 Hungarian War breaks out again.

1551 Poland and does homage for Semigallia and Courland. Socinus in Poland.

1551 The Council reopened at Trent.

1551 War in the Parmesan.

1551 War in Savoy (September).

1551 Capitulation of Magdeburg (November).

1552 Conference at Passau. Treaty of Passau.

1552 Foundation of Collegium Germanicum in Rome. Canisius summoned to Vienna.

1552 Russian annexation of Kazan.

1552 Second Act of Uniformity and Second Book of Common Prayer.

1552 Suspension of the Council of Trent.

1552 Treaty of Passau.

1552 Treaty of Chambord (January).

1552 Invasion of Lorraine by France (March). Occupation of the three bishoprics.

1552 Flight of Charles V before Maurice of Saxony (May).

1552 Siege of Metz (October-December).

1553 Accession of Elector Augustus of Saxony.

1553 Accession of Mary Tudor.

1553 League of Heidelberg.

1553 Murder of Prince Mustafa.

1553 Sir Hugh Wïlloughby's expedition for the discovery of the Northern Passage. Foundation of the English "Muscovy Company."

1553 Capture of Terouanne (June).

1553 Battle of Sievershausen (July). Death of Maurice of Saxony.

1553 Death of Edward VI of England (July). Lady Jane Grey proclaimed.

1554 Expulsion of Albrecht Alcibiades from Germany.

1554 Mary of Lorraine Regent of Scotland.

1554 Philip of Spain marries Mary Tudor, and becomes King of Naples.

1554 Rising of Sir Thomas Wyatt.

1554 Ronsard, chief of the Pléiade, proclaimed "the prince of poets."

1554 Russian annexation of Astrakhan.

1554-79 Great work of Henri Estienne's press at Geneva.

1554 Marriage of Philip of Spain and Mary Tudor (July).

1555 Abdication of Charles V at Brussels.

1555 Abdication of Charles V. Philip II invested with sovereignty of Netherlands.

1555 Bohemian Brethren unite with Calvinists at Synod of Kozminek.

1555 Jesuits under Canisius at Prague.

1555 Peace of Amasia between Turkey and Persia.

1555 Religious Peace of Augsburg.

1555 Death of Julius III (March). Giovanni Pietro Caraft'a elected as Paul IV.

1555 Fall of Siena (April).

1555 Diet of Augsburg. Religious Peace of Augsburg (September).

1556 Diet of Warsaw attacks Polish Church.

1556 Jesuit College at Ingolstadt.

1556 Netherlands States General oppose Philip II's financial demands.

1556 Philip receives crowns of Spain. Ferdinand I Emperor.

1556 Truce of Vaucelles.

1556 War between Paul IV, supported by France, and Philip IL, in Italy.

1556-7 Diet of Ratisbon. Eeservatum ecdesiasticum upheld.

1556-9 Reformation in Palatinate under Otto Henry.

1556 The Duc de Guise in Italy (December).

1557 Alva at gates of Rome.

1557 England declares war on France.

1557 Matthaeus Flacius summoned to Jena by Duke John Frederick.

1557 Religious colloquy at Worms. Canisius Provincial of Southern Germany.

1557 Scottish Lords of Congregation draw up the first Covenant.

1557 War of France with Spain and England. Battle of Saint Quentin.

1557 Battle of St Quentin (August).

1557 Paul IV makes peace with Philip II (September).

1558 Death of Charles V.

1558 Death of Mary, Queen of England, and accession of Elizabeth.

1558 Diet of Piotrkow.

1558 French defeated at Gravelines.

1558 Landsberg League.

1558 Laynez elected General of the Jesuit Order.

1558 Marriage of Mary Stewart and the Dauphin Francis.

1558 Marriage of Mary Stewart and the French Dauphin.

1558 Ramus' treatise on logic published in French.

1558-78 Gregory Stroganoff carries Russian colonisation beyond the Ural Mountains.

1558 Capture of Calais (January).

1558 Battle of Gravelines (July).

1558 Death of Mary Tudor (November). Accession of Elizabeth.

1559 Accession of Francis II in France.

1559 Accession of Frederick II in Denmark.

1559 Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity in England.

1559 Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity.

1559 Death of Henry II, and accession of Francis II.

1559 Death of Paul IV. Accession of Pius IV.

1559 Diet of Augsburg. Publication of Confutationsbueh.

1559 Election of Giovanni Angelo de' Medici as Pius IV.

1559 John Knox in Scotland. The Lords of the Congregation in arma.

1559 Knox returns to Scotland. Outbreak of religious conflict.

1559 Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis.

1559 Protestant Synod at Paris.

1559 Savoy and Piedmont restored to Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy.

1559-60 Beginning of Catholic reaction in Poland.

1559 Death of Christian III of Denmark (January).

1559 Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (April).

1559 Death of Henry II of France (July). Accession of Francis II.

1559 Death of Paul IV (August).

1560 Cardinal Granvelle enters Malines as Archbishop.

1560 Conspiracy of Amboise. Death of Francis II and accession of Charles IX.

1560 Death of Gustavus Vasa of Sweden and accession of Erik XIV.

1560 Death of Melauchthon. Aachen expels Protestant immigrants.

1560 Disastrous Spanish expedition to Tripoli coast.

1560 Elizabeth aids Lords of the Congregation against French.

1560 Mary Stewart refuses to ratify Treaty of Edinburgh.

1560 Orange and Egmont protest against action of Regent of Netherlands.

1560 Protestant Princes meet at Naumburg.

1560 Queen Mary returns to Scotland.

1560 Regency of Catharine de' Medici.

1560 Submission of the Vaudois.

1560 The Aeademia Secretorum Naturae founded at Naples.

1560 Treaty of Luzern between Savoy and certain Swiss Cantons.

1560 Vaudois take up arms against Savoy.

1561 French Estates at Pontoise.

1561 Gottfried Kettler, last High Master of the German Order in Livonia, becomes Duke of Courland.

1561 Landing of the Jesuit David Wolfe in Ireland.

1561 The Articles of Arboga.

1561 Mary Stewart in Scotland (August).

1561 Colloquy of Poissy (September).

1562 Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy enters Turin, henceforth his capital.

1562 Expedition under Warwick in aid of Huguenots. Death of Anthony of Navarre.

1562 League of Netherlands nobles against Cardinal Granvelle.

1562 Maximilian Roman King and King of Bohemia.

1562 Opening of the Religious Wars in France.

1562 Outbreak of First Religious War in France. Battle of Dreux.

1562 Peace of Prague between Ferdinand and Solyman.

1562 The Council reopens at Trent.

1562 Torquato Tasso's Rinaldo.

1562 Treaty of Hampton Court (September).

1563 Close of Council of Trent.

1563 Close of the Council of Trent.

1563 Commendone, Papal Nuncio, advances Counter-Reformation in Poland.

1563 First idea of Catholic League. Peace of Troyes between England and France.

1563 Heidelberg Catechism. Calvinistic Reformation in Palatinate.

1563 Maximilian crowned King of Hungary.

1563 Murder of Guise. Peace of Amboise ends First Religious War.

1563 Opposition in Netherlands to Trent Decrees.

1563 Ortenburg troubles in Bavaria.

1563 Papal briefs granting use of the Cup to laity in Germany.

1563 The Thirty-Nine Articles.

1563 Treaty of Lausanne (compromise between Savoy and Bern).

1563-70 The Northern Seven Years' War.

1564 Bull Benedictus Deus.

1564 Death of Ferdinand I. Maximilian II Emperor.

1564 Death of Calvin (May).

1565 Conference of Bayonne. Rise of the Politiques.

1565 Death of Michelangelo.

1565 Introduction of Jesuits into Poland.

1565 Marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Darnley.

1565 Proclamation of Inquisition in Netherlands ordered.

1565 Relief of Malta, besieged by Turks.

1566 Accession of Selim II.

1566 Administration of the see of Magdeburg secured to Joachim Frederick of Brandenburg.

1566 Assembly of Moulins.

1566 Culemburg banquet and the Gueux.

1566 Death of Solyman the Magnificent.

1566 Maximilian's first Diet at Augsburg. Jesuits in Würzburg.

1566 The "Compromise" issued by confederate nobles in Netherlands. The

1566 War between Sultan and Maximilian.

1567 "Enterprise of Meaux" opens Second Religious War in France. Fight at St Denis. John Casimir leads German reinforcements to Huguenots. End of Grumbach troubles.

1567 Death of Landgrave Philip of Hesse.

1567 Murder of Darnley. Carberry Hill. Abdication of Mary Queen of Scots, and coronation of James VI.

1567 Outbreak of insurrection in the Netherlands. Arrival of Alva and resignation of Margaret of Parma. "Council of Blood."

1567 The English Merchant Adventurers at Hamburg.

1568 Death of Don Carlos.

1568 Execution of Egmont and Hoorn. Battle of Jemmingen. Flight of Orange.

1568 Flight of Queen Mary into England. Jesuit seminary for English mission founded at Douai.

1568 Peace between Solyman and Maximilian.

1568 Peace of Longjumeau ends Second French Religious War. Third War opens.

1568 Spanish capture of English ships and booty at San Juan. Moorish rebellion.

1568-71 Chytraeus' ecclesiastical scheme for Lower Austria.

1569 Battles of Jarnac and Moncontour. Duke Wolfgang of Zweibrücke reinforces Huguenots.

1569 Catholic rising in North of England.

1569 Cosimo de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany.

1569 Deposition of Erik XIV of Sweden and accession of John IIL

1569 Letters of marque issued to the Gueux de Mer.

1569 Union of Poland and Lithuania at Lublin.

1569 Union of Poland and Lithuania at Lublin.

1570 Civil war in Scotland. Diet of Speier. Consensus of Sandomir.

1570 Moorish revolt put down by Don John of Austria.

1570 Opening of a thirteen years' war between Russia and Sweden,

1570 Papal Bull deposing Elizabeth.

1570 Peace of St Germain-en-Laye ends Third French Religious War.

1570 Peace of Stettin closes the Northern Seven Years' War.

1570 War between Venice and the Porte.

1571 Battle of Lepanto.

1571 Death of John Sigismund Zápolya. Stephen Báthory Prince of Transylvania.

1571 Ridolfi plot.

1571 Synod of Emden.

1571 Triple Alliance against the Turks between Spain, the Pope, and Venice.

1572 Death of Pius V. Accession of Gregory XIII.

1572 Death of Sigismund Augustus of Poland.

1572 Drake attacks Nombre de Dios.

1572 Foundation of Accademia della Crusca.

1572 Massacre of St Bartholomew. Fourth Religious War in France begins.

1572 Orange invades the Netherlands and becomes Stadholder of Holland.

1572 The "Sea-Beggars" seize Brill. "Wilhelmus van Nassouwen."

1572 Treaty of Blois between England and France.

1573 Alva recalled from the Netherlands. Appointment of Requesens.

1573 Chytraeus' ecclesiastical scheme for Styria.

1573 Don John takes Tunis.

1573 Edict of Rochelle closes Fourth Religious War in France.

1573 Election of Anjou to throne of Poland.

1573 Pacification of Perth. Expulsion of Flacian clergy from Ducal Saxony.

1573 Peace between Venice and the Porte. Cession of Cyprus.

1574 Accession of Henry III. His flight from Poland.

1574 Augustus, Elector of Saxony, imposes Torgau Formula.

1574 Death of Cosimo de' Medici.

1574 Death of Selim II. Murad II succeeds.

1574 Outbreak of Fifth Religious War in France. Death of Charles IX of France.

1574 Zeeland lost to Philip. Relief of Leyden. Foundation of its University.

1575 Rudolf King of the Romans. Failure of Breda conferences.

1575 Stephen Báthory elected King of Poland. Tartars in East Poland.

1575-6 Spanish conquest of Duiveland and Schouwen.

1576 "Peace of Monsieur" ends Fifth French Religious War. The Catholic

1576 Death of Requesens. Sack of Antwerp. Pacification of Ghent.

1576 Diet of Ratisbon. Death of Maximilian II. Catholicism restored in Fulda.

1576 Don John Governor-General of Netherlands. " Spanish Fury " at Antwerp.

1576 Grindal Archbishop of Canterbury.

1576 Jean Bodin's Six Livres de la République.

1576 League comes into operation.

1577 Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma, Governor of the Netherlands.

1577 Death of Sebastian of Portugal at battle of Alcazar-Kebir.

1577 James VI assumes government of Scotland.

1577 League between Savoy and Swiss Catholic Cantons.

1577 Sixth Religious War in France. Peace of Bergerac.

1577 Surrender of Danzig. Polish opposition to Báthory collapses.

1577 Union of Brussels. "Perpetual Edict." Don John seizes Namur. Orange enters Brussels.

1577-80 Drake's voyage round the world.

1578 Archduke Matthias enters Brussels as Governor. Death of Don John.

1579 Death of Grand Vezir Mohammad Sokolli.

1579 Desmond's rebellion in Ireland suppressed.

1579 Spenser's Shepheards Calender.

1579 Treaty of Arras and Union of Utrecht.

1580 Arrival in England of the Jesuits Parsons and Campion.

1580 Death of Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy. Accession of Charles Emmanuel.

1580 Death of Francis II of France. Accession of Charles IX.

1580 Death of Gustavus Vasa of Sweden.

1580 Death of King Henry of Portugal. Alva sent to seize his kingdom.

1580 First Essays of Montaigne.

1580 Formula Concordiae issued.

1580 French Estates at Orleans.

1580 Landing and defeat of Spanish and Italian troops in Kerry.

1580 Michel de l'Hôpital Chancellor of France.

1580 Seventh Religious War in France. Peace of Fleix.

1580 Tumult of Amboise (February-March).

1580 Edict of Romorantin (May).

1580 Treaty of Edinburgh (July).

1580 Reforming Parliament at Edinburgh (August).

1580 Arrest of Condé (October).

1581 Act (against Catholics) to retain Queen's subjects in due obedience.

1581 Act of Abjuration of northern Provinces of the Netherlands. Apology of William of Orange.

1581 Bibliotheca Vallicelliana founded.

1581 Establishment of the English Turkey Company.

1581 Portugal submits to Philip II of Spain as King. Don Antonio iu England.

1581 Publication of Second Book of Discipline by the Scottish Kirk.

1581-3 Catholic plots in England and Scotland.

1582 Diet of Augsburg.

1582 Ivan IV (the Terrible) surrenders Wielicz, Flock and all Livonia to Poland.

1582 Raid of Ruthven.

1582-4 The Cossack Ermak Timotheevich captures Sibir.—Russian subjugation of Siberia follows.

1583 "French Fury" in Antwerp. Orange Hereditary Count of Holland and Zeeland.

1583 Death and attainder of Desmond.

1583 Ernest of Bavaria, elected Archbishop of Cologne, takes forcible possession.

1583 Expedition of Sir Humphrey Gilbert.

1583 Gebhard, Archbishop of Cologne, marries, and attempts Protestantisation of his see.

1583 Scaliger's de Emendatione Temporum.

1583 Truce of Pliusa between Sweden and the Tsar.

1583 Whitgift Archbishop of Canterbury. Throckmorton's plot.

1584 Assassination of the Prince of Orange.

1584 Association in England for protection of Elizabeth. Act against Jesuits and seminary priests.

1584 Death of Ivan the Terrible. Dutch factory at Archangel on the White Sea.

1585 English expedition to Low Countries under Leicester.

1585 John Casimir invested with the Palatinate as guardian of Frederick IV.

1585 Münster, Paderborn and Osnabrück restored to Catholicism.

1585 Outbreak of "War of the Three Henrys" in France.

1585 Sixtus V Pope. Expulsion of the Jesuits from England.

1585 Treaty at Joinville between the Catholic League and Philip II.

1585-6 Drake's expedition to West Indies.

1585-7 Counter-Reformation in Würzburg.

1586 Attempted English plantation of Munster.

1586 Babington conspiracy in England.

1586 Death of Elector Augustus of Saxony.

1586 Death of Stephen Báthory.

1586 Leicester Governor-General of the United Provinces.

1586 Oldenbarneveldt Land's Advocate of Holland.

1586 Star Chamber ordinance against unlicensed printing.

1586 The Sixteen establish revolutionary government in Paris.

1587 Alliance between John Casimir and Navarre. Victory of Navarre at Coutras.

1587 Death of Francis de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and accession of Cardinal Ferdinand de'Medici.

1587 Dohna routed at Auneau.

1587 Drake destroys Spanish shipping in harbour of Cadiz.

1587 Election of Sigismund III of Poland.

1587 Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots.

1587 Statute of Kalmar.

1588 Death of Frederick II of Denmark and accession of Christian IV.

1588 Destruction of the Spanish Armada.

1588 Marlowe's Tamburlaine.

1588 Marquisate of Saluzzo seized by Savoy.

1588 Maurice of Nassau Captain-General and Admiral of the United Provinces.

1588 The League in control of Paris. Assassination of Guise.

1588 Vatican Library built by Domenico Fontana.

1588-90 Martin Mar-prelate controversy.

1589 Assassination of Henry III. Contest between Henry IV and the League.

1589 Battle of Ivry. End of War between Turkey and Persia.

1589 Charles Emmanuel attacks Provence.

1589 Death of Catharine de' Medici.

1589 Expedition to Portugal under Drake and Norreys.

1589 Foundation of Patriarchate of Moscow.

1589 Henry IV's victory at Arques.

1589 Maurice of Nassau Stadholder of Utrecht, Gelderland, and Overyssel.

1589 Sidney's Arcadia.

1589-91 Galileo at Pisa lays foundation of the science of Dynamics.

1590 Death of Pope Sixtus V.

1590 Death of Sixtus V.

1590-6 Spenser's faerie Queene.

1591 Archduke Ernest Viceroy of the Netherlands.

1591 Clement VIII authorises publication of Sixtus V's Bible.

1591 Diet of Ratisbon. Archduke Albert Viceroy of Portugal.

1591 Dutch ships on Gold Coast of Guinea.

1591 Foundation of Trinity College, Dublin.

1591 Francis Vieta publishes his algebraic work.

1591 Legislation repressing Protestant nonconformity in England.

1591 Maurice of Nassau takes Zutphen, Deventer, Hulst and Nymegen.

1591 Philip II suppresses opposition in Aragon.

1591 Rejection in France of papal monitorials against Henry IV.

1591 Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost acted.

1592 Death of Parma.

1592 Election of Pope Clement VIII.

1592 Sigismund III of Poland crowned King of Sweden.

1593 Henry IV hears mass at St Denis. War between the Empire and Turkey.

1594 Dutch Company of Foreign Merchants formed.

1594 Henry IV enters Paris. Edict of St Germain.

1594 La Satyre Ménippée.

1594 Meeting of Heilbronn.

1594 Tyrone's rebellion in Ireland.

1594-6 Attempts to discover Northern route to China and the East.

1594-7 Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity.

1595 "Lambeth Articles" issued by Whitgift.

1595 Absolution of Henry IV.

1595 Expedition sent by Amsterdam merchants to Java, Goa, and Molucca.

1595 Expedition to West Indies under Drake and Hawkins.

1595 Open war between France and Spain.

1595 Peace of Teusin between Sweden and Russia.

1595 Peasant insurrection in Upper Austria.

1595 May. Peace of Teusin between Russia, Sweden, and Poland.

1596 Alliance of England and France with United Provinces.

1596 Cardinal Archduke Albert of Austria Governor-General of Netherlands.

1596 Death of Drake. English expedition to Cadiz. Spanish expedition for Ireland shattered off Cape Finisterre.

1596 Three Days Battle between Mohammad III and Archduke Maximilian.

1597 Death of Alfonso II of Ferrara.

1597 Diet of Ratisbon. Catholic predominance restored in Austria.

1597 Henry IV recaptures Amiens.

1597 Third Armada turned back.

1597 Victorious campaign of Maurice of Nassau.

1598 Albert and Isabel joint sovereigns of the Netherlands.

1598 Death of Philip II and accession of Philip III.

1598 Edict of Nantes.

1598 Peace of Vervins.

1598 Tyrone's rebellion in Ireland. End of Munster plantation.

1599 Deposition of Sigismund of Sweden.

1599 Essex sent to Ireland.

1600 BattlEnglish East India Company receives its Charter.

1600 Battle of Nieuport.

1600 Charles IX chosen King of Sweden.

1600 English East India Company chartered.

1600 Galileo's discoveries as to the laws of gravitation.

1600 Isaac Casaubon Regius Professor of Greek at Paris.

1600 Mountjoy Lord Deputy of Ireland.

1600 Opening of the War of the Swedish Succession between Sweden and Poland.

1600 Peace conferences at Bergen-op-Zoom and Boulogne.

1600 War between France and Savoy.

1601 Dutch East India Company receives its Charter.

1601 Failure of Spanish and Italian expedition against Algiers.

1601 First general Poor Law in England.

1601 Landing of a Spanish force at Kiusale.

1601 Treaty of Lyons between France, Spain, and Savoy.

1602 Arminius Professor of Theology at Leyden.

1602 Charles Emmanuel attacks Geneva.

1602 CountRudolf II reissues edict of banishment against the Protestants of Bohemia, and destroys school of Jungbunzlau.

1602 Counter-Reformation in Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola.

1602 Dutch East India Company formed.

1602 Spinola against Maurice of Nassau in the Netherlands.

1602-3 Mountjoy's conquest of Ireland.

1602-6 Dutch East India Company establishes trade at Amboina, Tidor, Bantam, etc.

1603 Death of Queen Elizabeth. Accession of James I.

1603 Diet of Ratisbon.

1603 Treaty of Saint-Julien. Alliance between the Grisons and Venice.

1604 Conference of Hampton Court.

1604 Ostend taken by Spinola.

1604 Peace between England, Spain, and the Archdukes.

1604 Sluys taken by Maurice of Nassau.

1605 Assembly of Chatelhe'rault

1605 Bacon's Advancement of Learning. Arndt's Four Books.

1605 Calvinism established in Hesse-Cassel.

1605 Diet of Szerenes proclaims Bocskai King of Hungary.

1605 Election of Pope Paul V.

1605 Gunpowder Plot in England.

1605 Joachim Frederick of Brandenburg obtains administratorship of ducal Prussia.

1605 Malherbe at Paris, Cervantes' Don Quixote. Bacon's Advancement of Learning.

1605 The Dutch take Amboina.

1605-19 The Dutch reach the western coast of Australia.

1605-6 Rule of Dimitri the Pretender at Moscow.

1606 Abortive attempt at Union of England and Scotland.

1606 Death of Bocskai. Peace between the Empire and the Turks at Zsitva-Torok.

1606 Peace of Zsitva-Torok between the Empire and the Turks.

1606 The London and Plymouth Companies for North America chartered.

1606 Treaty of Vienna.

1606-7 Quarrel between Pope Paul V and Venice.

1607 Archduke Leopold Bishop of Strassburg and Passau.

1607 English colony sent to Virginia.

1607 Foundation of the Virginia Colony at Jamestown.

1607 Spanish fleet at Gibraltar annihilated by Dutch Admiral Heemskerk.

1607-8 Incident of Donauwörth.

1608 Diet of Ratisbon. Union of Evangelical Estates. Pressburg Alliance.

1608 French colony at Quebec founded by Champlain.

1608 French settlements at Port Royal and Quebec.

1608 Rising in Ireland.

1609 Catholic Union formed in Germany.

1609 Commercial treaty between the United Provinces and Morocco.

1609 Death of Arminius and organisation of his followers.

1609 Death of Duke John William of Julich-Cleves. Brandenburg and Neuburg take possession of the Duchies.

1609 Death of Ferdinand, Grand Duke of Tuscany.

1609 Destruction of the Mediterranean corsairs at Tunis.

1609 Edict for deportation of the Moriscos from Valencia.

1609 English colony in Guiana.

1609 Invasion of Russia by King Sigismund of Poland.

1609 Kepler publishes his development of the Copernican system of astronomy.

1609 The Bohemian Letter of Majesty granted.

1609 Twelve Years' Truce between Spain and the United Provinces.

1609 Twelve Years' Truce between Spain and the United Provinces.

1609-32 English settlement of the Bermudas, the Leeward Islands and Barbados.

1610 Alliance of Brosolo between France and Savoy for a joint attack on Milan.

1610 Arminiaus draw up Remonstrantie.

1610 German Catholic Union developes into Catholic League.

1610 Murder of Henry IV of France.

1610 Murder of Henry IV.

1610 Regency of Mary de' Medici declared.

1610 Scheme of plantation in Ireland ultimately successful for Ulster.

1610 The Dutch establish trading relations with Japan.

1610 The Jülich expedition.

1610-20 Plantation of North Wexford.

1611 Accession of John George I, Elector of Saxony.

1611 Death of Charles IX of Sweden and accession of Gustavus II Adolphus.

1611 Plantation of Ulster.

1611 The Tempest.

1611 War between Denmark and Sweden.

1611-3 War of Kalmar.

1612 Death of Rudolf II.

1612 Jacob Boehme's Aurora.

1612 Matthias elected Emperor.

1613 English expedition to Japan.

1613 Issue of Turbatus imperil Romani status.

1613 Marriage of Princess Elizabeth of England and the Elector Palatine Frederick V.

1613 Marriage of Princess Elizabeth of England with Frederick V, Elector Palatine.

1613 Michael Romanoff elected Tsar.

1613 Peace of Knäred between Sweden and Denmark.

1614 Cleves-Berg inheritance.

1614 Danish East India Company chartered.

1614 League of French Princes against the Government.

1614 Napier of Merchistoun on logarithms.

1614 Treaty of Xanten regulates Brandenburg and Neuburg claims to Jülich-

1614 Treaty of Xanten.

1614-5 Circumnavigation of the globe by Spilbergen.

1614 August. Meeting of representatives of the German Habsburg lands at Linz.

1614 October. Meeting of the French Assembly of Estates.

1614 November. Treaty of Xanten.

1615 Destruction of the Spanish-Portuguese fleet.

1615 Dutch dominion established in the Molucca Islands.

1615 Peace of Asti between Spain and Savoy.

1615 Peace of Tyrnau between the Empire and Bethlen Gabor.

1615 Rebellion of the French Princes.

1615 Sir Thomas Roe's embassy to the Great Moghul.

1615-20 Plantation of Longford and Ely O'Carroll.

1616 Despatch of an English trading mission to Persia.

1616 Edict of Inquisition against Galileo's teaching of astronomy.

1616 Pieter van den Broeck opens relations between the Dutch and the Arabs and Persians.

1616 Richelieu Minister of State.

1617 Archduke Ferdinand King-designate of Bohemia.

1617 Murder of Concini. Luynes Chief Minister in France.

1617 Peace of Pavia between Spain and Savoy.

1617 Peace of Stolbova between Sweden and Russia.

1617 Peace of Stolbova between Sweden and Russia.

1617 Ralegh's second expedition to Guiana.

1617-22 Jan P. Koen Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

1618 Execution of Sir Walter Ralegh.

1618 First English (West) African Company founded.

1618 Spanish plot against Venice.

1618 Synod of Dort.

1618 The Archduke Ferdinand of Styria elected King of Hungary.

1618 Troubles in Bohemia. Outbreak of the Thirty Years' War.

1618 Union of the duchy of Prussia with Brandenburg,

1618 February. Peace of Madrid.

1618 May. The "defenestration" at Prague. Opening of the Thirty Years' War.

1619 Batavia becomes the capital of the Dutch East Indies.

1619 Bethlen Gabor advances into Hungary.

1619 Execution of Oldenbarneveldt.

1619 Frederick V, Elector Palatine, elected King of Bohemia.

1619 March. Death of the Emperor Matthias.

1619 June. Agreement between the Dutch and English East India Companies.

1619 August. Election of Ferdinand II as Emperor. Deposition of Ferdinand in Bohemia and election of Frederick V, Elector Palatine.

1620 Bacon's Novum Organum.

1620 Beam and Navarre incorporated in France.

1620 Colony of English Separatists founded at Plymouth in New England.

1620 Protestant massacre in the Valtelline.

1620-3 Bohemian and Palatinate Wars.

1620 The Mayflower pilgrims found New England.

1620 July. Compact of Ulm between Union and League.

1620 November. Battle of the White Hill (Prague).

1621 Austro-Spanish attack on the Grisons.

1621 Catholic reaction in Bohemia begins.

1621 Dissolution of the Protestant Union. Collapse of Palatine policy.

1621 Foundation of the Dutch West India Company.

1621 Religious war in France.

1621 Thomas Mun's mission to the East.

1621 War between Spain and the Dutch Republic. Death of Philip III of Spain.

1621 February. Election of Pope Gregory XV.

1621 March. Death of Philip III of Spain and accession of Philip IV. Ascendancy of Olivares begins.

1621 April. Treaty of Madrid.

1621 December. Peace of Nikolsburg between the Emperor and Bethlen Gabor.

1622 Truce between Sweden and Poland.

1622 January. The Milan Articles.

1622 May. Victory of Tilly at Wimpfen.

1622 June. Defeat of Christian of Halberstadt at Höchst.

1622 September. Treaty of Lindau establishes Austrian power in the Grisons and the Valtelline.

1622 October. Huguenot Peace of Montpellier.

1623 Battle of Stadtlohn.

1623 Bethlen Gabor again invades the Austrian dominions.

1623 Duke Maximilian invested with the Palatine electorate.

1623 Dutch commercial treaty with Persia.

1623 Removal of the Bibliotheca Palatina from Heidelberg to Rome.

1623 Treaty of Paris between France, Venice., and Savoy.

1623 January. Meeting of German Princes at Ratisbon.

1623 February. Opening of the Lower Saxon War.

1623 March. Prince Charles and Buckingham in Spain.

1623 August. Election of Pope Urban VIII.

1623 December. Spanish Marriage treaty broken off.

1624 Nov.-Dec. French occupation of the Valtelline.

1624 The "Massacre at Amboina."

1624 March. Dutch expedition to Bahia.

1624 April. Richelieu becomes Chief Minister in France.

1624 November. Marriage treaty between England and France.

1625 English expedition to Cadiz.

1625 French colony at Cayenne founded.

1625 Meeting of the first Parliament of Charles I.

1625 Re-opening of the war between Sweden and Poland.

1625 March. Death of James I of England and accession of Charles I.

1625 April. Accession of Frederick Henry of Nassau, Prince of Orange.

1625 May. Christian IV of Denmark intervenes in the Thirty Years' War.

1625 June. Capture of Breda by Spinola.

1625 October. Anglo-Dutch treaty against Spain.

1626 French West African Company founded.

1626 Incorporation of the French " Company for the Islands of America."

1626 Marriage of Charles I and Henrietta Maria.

1626 Peace of Pressburg between the Emperor and Bethlen Gabor.

1626 January. Outbreak of insurrection in Upper Austria.

1626 February. Meeting of the second Parliament of Charles I.

1626 March. Treaty of Monzon between France and Spain. The Valtelline under the protection of France and Spain.

1626 April. Mansfeld and Wallenstein at the Dessau Bridge.

1626 June. Death of Christian, late of Halberstadt.

1626 August. Battle of Lutter.

1626 November. Death of Mansfeld.

1626 December. French Assembly of Notables.

1627 Imperial occupation of Jutland and Schleswig.

1627 Swedish South Sea Company founded.

1627-8 Dutch exploration of the northern coast of Australia.

1627 June. Buckingham's expedition to Ré.

1627 December. Death of Vincent II, Duke of Mantua.

1628 Harvey's Exercitatio de Motu Cordts.

1628-31 The Mantuan War.

1628 January. Suedo-Danish Treaty.

1628 March. Meeting of the third Parliament of Charles I.

1628 May-July. Siege of Stralsund.

1628 May-June. The Petition of Right.

1628 October. Capitulation of La Rochelle.

1629 Dissolution of English Parliament. Imprisonment of Eliot esc.

1629 Peace of Lübeck.

1629 The Act of Revocation of Scottish Church lands.

1629 The French occupy Susa. Relief of Casale.

1629 The Massachusetts Charter granted.

1629 March. The Edict of Restitution.

1629 June. Submission of the French Huguenots.

1629 September. Truce of Altmark between Sweden and Poland.

1630 Death of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy.

1630 Dutch expedition to Pernambuco.

1630 Treaties of Cherasco close the Mantuan War.

1630 April. Dutch Acte de Survivance.

1630 May. Destruction of Magdeburg.

1630 May. French occupation of Savoy.

1630 June. Landing of Gustavus in Pomerania.

1630 July. Mary de' Medici leaves France.

1630 July. The Ratisbon Kurfürstentag assembles.

1630 September. Battle of Breitenfeld.

1630 September. Dismissal of Wallenstein.

1630 December. Gustavus at Mainz.

1631 January. Treaty of Bärwalde between France and Sweden.

1632 Foundation of the Academy at Amsterdam.

1632 Galileo's dialogues on the Copernican theory of astronomy,

1632 War between Poland and Russia.

1632 April. Reappointment of Wallenstein.

1632 May. Gustavus at Munich.

1632 June. Gaston of Orleans in Lorraine. Execution of Montmorency.

1632 July. Appointment of Wentworth as Deputy in Ireland.

1632 November. Battle of Lützen and death of Gustavus Adolphus. Accession of Christina,

1633 Condemnation of Galileo.

1633 Death of the Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia.

1633 English settlements on the Bengal coasts.

1633 Publication of Donne's Poems.

1633 April. Alliance of Heilbronn.

1633 August. French occupation of Lorraine. Laud appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.

1634 Ang.-Sept. The Frankfort Convention.

1634 Foundation of the English proprietary colony of Maryland.

1634 The French Academy constituted.

1634 Treaty of Polianovka between Poland and Russia.

1634-5 The Worms Convention.

1634 February. Assassination of Wallenstein.

1634 September. Battle of Nördlingen.

1634 October. Levy of ship-money in England.

1634 November. Franco-Swedish Treaty of Paris.

1635 Alliance between France and the United Provinces.

1635 French occupation of the Valtelline.

1635 French settlement of Martinique and Guadeloupe.

1635 Peace of Prague.

1635 Truce of Stuhmsdorf between Sweden and Poland (including Prussia).

1635 April. Franco-Swedish Treaty of Compiègne.

1635 May. War declared between France and Spain.

1636 Corneille's Le Cid.

1636 Foundation of the Academy at Utrecht.

1636-45 Anthoni van Diemen Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

1636 March. Treaty of Wismar between France and Sweden.

1636 June. Relief of Hanau.

1636 July. Invasion of France. (Johann von Werth.)

1636 October. Battle of Wittstock.

1637 Death of Bogislav XIV of Pomerania. Swedes remain in possession of duchy.

1637 Descartes' Discours. Milton's Lycidas written.

1637 Frederick Henry takes Breda.

1637-44 Joan Maurice of Nassau Governor-General in Dutch Brazil.

1637-8 Trial of John Hampden.

1637 February. Death of Ferdinand II. Accession of Ferdinand III.

1637 March. The French driven from the Valtelline.

1637 July. Introduction of " Laud's Liturgy" into Scotland.

1637 October. Compact between Bernard of Weimar and the French Crown.

1638 Aug.-Dec. Siege of Breisach.

1638 Death of Cornelius Jansen.

1638 Death of Jansenius.

1638 Publication of Chillingworth's Religion of Protestante.

1638 Swedish colony on the Delaware.

1638 The Scottish National Covenant.

1638 March. Renewal of the Franco-Swedish alliance.

1638 May. Fight at Wittenweier.

1638 November. Meeting of the General Assembly in Glasgow.

1639 Battle of the Downs. Tromp destroys the Spanish fleet.

1639 March-June. The first Bishops' War closed by the Treaty of Berwick.

1639 July. Death of Bernard of Weimar.

1639 September. Peace of Milan. The Valtelline restored to the Grey Leagues.

1639 October. The Bernardines taken into the service of France.

1640 Death of George William of Brandenburg and accession of Frederick

1640 Dissertatio de ratione status m Imperio ßomano-Germanico published.

1640 Foundation of Fort St George by the British.

1640 Negotiations at Ripon.

1640 Nov.—Dec. Strafford and Laud impeached.

1640 Posthumous publication of Jansen's treatise on the theology of St Augustine.

1640 Revolt of Portugal. The Duke of Braganza proclaimed King John IV.

1640 William (the Great Elector).

1640-1 Sept.-Oct. Diet of Ratisbon.

1640-2 Revolt of Catalonia.

1640 April. Meeting of the Short Parliament.

1640 July-Aug. The second Bishops' War. The Council of Peers at York.

1640 November. Meeting of the Long Parliament.

1640 December. Accession of the Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg.

1641 Death of Bane'r.

1641 Descartes' Meditationes de prima philosophia.

1641 Milton's first pamphlet Of Reformation touching Church discipline in England.

1641 Truce of Stockholm between Brandenburg and Sweden.

1641 January. The Portuguese surrender Malacca to the Dutch.

1641 May. Execution of Strafford.

1641 June. Treaty between Portugal and the United Provinces.

1641 October. Outbreak of the Irish rebellion.

1641 November. 'The Grand Remonstrance.

1642 English commercial treaty with Portugal.

1642 Hales' Schism and Schismatics.

1642 Roussillon conquered by Prance.

1642-4 War between the Pope and the northern Italian States.

1642-Voyage of Abel Tasman.

1642 January. Impeachment of the Five Members of the House of Commons.

1642 July-Aug. Opening of the Civil War in England.

1642 September. Conspiracy of Cinq-Mars.

1642 October. Battle of Edgehill.

1642 November. Torstensson's victory at Breitenfeld.

1642 December. Death of Richelieu.

1643 Battle of Ardwalton Moor.

1643 Battle of Rocroi.

1643 Beginnings of the Fronde.

1643 Death of Pym.

1643 Surrender of Bristol.

1643 The Solemn League and Covenant.

1643 January. Fall of Olivares.

1643 April. Breakdown of the "Treaty of Oxford."

1643 May. Death of Louis XIII. Anne of Austria Regent. Mazarin Chief Minister.

1643 June. Meeting of the Scottish Convention of Estates.

1643 July. Opening of the Westminster Assembly.

1643 September. First battle of Newbury.

1643 December. Swedish invasion of Denmark.

1644 Battle of Marston Moor.

1644 Descartes' Principles', Philosophiae.

1644 Election of Pope Innocent X.

1644 Portuguese rising in Brazil.

1644 Reduction of Jutland by Torstensson.

1644 January. The Scots enter England.

1644 July. Death of Pope urban VIII.

1644 August. Battles near Freiburg in the Breisgau.

1644 September. The French seize the line of the Rhine.

1644 October. Second battle of Newbury.

1645 Accession of the Tsar Alexis Romanoff.

1645 Battle of Allerheim near Nördlingen.

1645 Battle of Kilsyth.

1645 Jan.-Feb. The Uxbridge negotiations.

1645 Peace Congress opens at Münster and Osnabrück.

1645 Treaty between France and Rakdczy.

1645 January. Execution of Laud.

1645 March. Battle of Jankau.

1645 April. The Self-Denying Ordinance. Formation of the New Model army.

1645 May. Battle of Herbsthausen.

1645 June. Battle of Naseby.

1645 August. Treaty of Brömsebro between Sweden and Denmark.

1645 September. Battle of Philiphaugh.

1645 November. Arrival of Rinuccini at Kilkenny.

1646 Jeremy Taylor's Liberty of Prophesying.—Travels of Olearius.

1646 March. Articles of Peace between Charles I and the Irish Catholics.

1646 May. Charles I surrenders to the Scots.

1646 June. Fall of Oxford.

1646 July. Turenne and Wrangel invade Bavaria.

1646 August. End of the first Civil War in England.

1646 October. French capture of Dunkirk.

1647 Foundation of the Swedish African Company.

1647 January. Surrender of Charles I by the Scots to the English Commissioners.

1647 March. Death of Frederick Henry of Orange. Accession of William II.

1647 July. "Heads of the Proposals."

1647,07-8 July-Feb. Revolt of Naples. Masaniello.

1647 October. The "Agreement of the People."

1647 November. Charles I at Carisbrooke Castle.

1648 Accession of Mohammad IV.

1648 Bishoprics of Halberstadt and Minden secured by Brandenburg.

1648 Condé's victory over the Spaniards at Lens.

1648 Peace of Münster between Spain and the Dutch.

1648 Sept.-Oct. The "Treaty of Newport."

1648 The Peace of Westphalia signed at Munster and Osnabrück.

1648 The Russian Sobor draws up a new Code of Laws (Ulozhenie).

1648 War between Venice and the Turks. Beginning of siege of Candia.

1648 January. Vote of No Addresses.

1648 February. Death of Christian IV of Denmark.

1648 April-May. Opening of the second Civil War in England.

1648 May. The Parliamentary Fronde begins.

1648 June-Aug. Siege and fall of Colchester.

1648 July. The Scottish invasion of England.

1648 August. Battle of Preston.

1648 October. The Declaration of Saint-Germain registered.

1648 December. "Pride's Purge."

1649 Abolition of the House of Lords and of the English Kingship.

1649 Catholic-Royalist Treaty of Kilkenny.

1649 Charles II proclaimed in Scotland.

1649 Condemnation by the Sorbonne of five propositions from Jansen's Augustmus.

1649 Descartes' Le Traité des passions de l'áme.

1649 Portuguese Brazil Company established.

1649 Turenne joins the rebellion.

1649 January. Trial and execution of Charles I.

1649 February. End of the formal sessions of the Westminster Assembly.

1649 April. Treaty of Rueil between the French Court and the rebels.

1649 August. Battle of Rathmines.

1649 September. Storming of Drogheda by Cromwell.

1650 Bordeaux surrenders to the King.

1650-63 Portuguese thrown back by Dutch in Ceylon and Malabar.

1650 January. Arrest of Condé.

1650 February. Death of Descartes.

1650 May. Éxecution of Montrose.

1650 September. Battle of Dunbar.

1650 November. Death of William II of Orange.

1651 Antoni van Riebeek founds Cape Colony.

1651 Condé allies himself with Spain.

1651 English Navigation Act.

1651 English factory established at Hooghley.

1651 Hobbes' Leviathan published.

1651 Hobbes' Leviathfin.

1651 The first English Navigation Act.

1651 February. Mazarin leaves France. Release of the Princes.

1651 September. Battle of Worcester.

1652 Abdication of Christina of Sweden and accession of Charles Gustavus.

1652 Dutch East India Company form a settlement at the Cape of Good Hope

1652 May. Articles of Kilkenny.

1652 June. Outbreak of the first Anglo-Dutch War.

1652 August. "Act for the Settling- of Ireland."

1652 September. Blake's victory off the Kentish Knock.

1652 October. Return of Louis XIII to Paris.

1652 November. Blake's defeat off Dungeness.

1653 Eastern Pomerania secured by Brandenburg.

1653 Final return of Mazarin to France.

1653 Innocent X declares the five Jansenist propositions heretical.

1653 John de Witt Grand Pensionary of Holland.

1653 John de Witt Pensionary of Holland.

1653 February. Naval action between Blake and Tromp off Portland.

1653 June. Monck's victory off the Gabbard.

1653 July. Monck's victory off the Texel.

1653 December. The "Instrument of Government." Oliver Cromwell Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

1654 Final acquisition of Brazil by Portugal.

1654 Successful revolt of Brazil against Dutch dominion.

1654 The Dutch expelled from Brazil.

1654 The Prussian League renounces its allegiance to the German Order.

1654-6 Liturgical reforms of Nikon, Patriarch of Moscow.

1654 March. End of the Fronde.

1654 April-July. Commercial treaties between England and Sweden, England and Denmark, and England and Portugal.

1654 April. Peace between England and Holland.

1654 June. Abdication of Queen Christina of Sweden. Accession of Charles X Gustavus.

1654 October. Blake's expedition to the Mediterranean.

1654 December. Expedition of Penn and Venables to Hispaniola.

1655 British capture of Jamaica.

1655 May. Capture of Jamaica.

1655 July. Charles X invades Poland.

1655 August. The scheme of Major-Generals adopted.

1655 October. Treaty of Westminster between England and France.

1656 Battle of Valenciennes.

1656 Harrington's Oceana published.

1656 Harrington's Oceana, John Wallis' Arithmetica Inßnitorum.

1656 Mohammad Kiuprili Grand Vezir. Revival of the Ottoman Power.

1656 The Vaudois persecution.

1656 Treaties of Königsberg, Marienburg, and Labiau between Sweden and Brandenburg.

1656-7 Pascal's Provincial Letters.

1656 January. The first of Pascal's Lettres Provinciales.

1656 July. Battle of Warsaw.

1656 September. Alliance of England and France against Spain.

1657 Blake's destruction of the Spanish silver-fleet at Santa Cruz.

1657 War between the United Provinces and Portugal.

1657-1707 Reign of Aurungzeb in India.

1657 March-May. "The Humble Petition and Advice."

1657 March. Treaty of Paris between England and France.

1657 April. Death of Ferdinand III.

1657 July. Swedish invasion of Denmark.

1657 September. Treaty of Wehlau between Brandenburg and Poland.

1658 Austro-Brandenburg alliance against Sweden.

1658 Opening of the second Danish War of Charles X of Sweden.

1658 Peace of Roeskilde between Sweden and Denmark.

1658 February. Peace of Roeskiide between Sweden and Denmark.

1658 May-June. Anglo-French siege of Dunkirk.

1658 June. Battle of the Dunes.

1658 July. Election of the Emperor Leopold I.

1658 August. The Rheinbund.

1658 September. Death of Oliver Cromwell. Richard proclaimed Protector.

1659 Abdication of Richard Cromwell.

1659 Stillingfleet's Irenicon.

1659 May. Reassembling of the remnants of the Long Parliament.

1659 November. Treaty of the Pyrenees.

1660 Milton's Ready and easy way to establish a free Commonwealth.

1660 Monck appointed Captain-General of the British forces.

1660 Peace of Oliva. Independence of East Prussia recognised.

1660-73 James, Duke of York, Lord High Admiral of England.

1660 February. Death of Charles Gustavus of Sweden.

1660 February. Death of Charles X of Sweden.

1660 March. Dissolution of the Long Parliament.

1660 April-May. The Stewart Restoration.

1660 April. Lambert's rising in England.

1660 April. Meeting of the Convention Parliament.

1660 May. Peace of Copenhagen between Sweden and Denmark.

1660 May. Peace of Oliva between Sweden, Brandenburg and Poland.

1660 May. The Declaration of Breda.

1660 May. The Restoration of the English Monarchy and return of Charles II.

1660 June. Marriage of Louis XIV and Maria Teresa.

1660 June. Treaty of peace at Copenhagen between Denmark and Sweden.

1660 October. Establishment of hereditary monarchy in Denmark in the House of Frederick III. Growth of absolutism in Denmark and Norway.

1661 Ahmad Kiuprili Grand Vezir.

1661 Boyle's Sceptical Chemist.

1661 Death of Mazarin. Beginning of the personal rule of Louis XIV.

1661 Defensive alliance and commercial treaty between England and Brandenburg.

1661 New Charter granted to English East India Company.

1661 The Scottish Rescissory Act. English Disciplinary Naval Statute.

1661 January. John Keményi Prince of Transylvania. Despatch of Imperial force under Montecuculi against the Turks.

1661 February. Peace between France and Lorraine.

1661 March. Death of Mazarin.

1661 April-May. Savoy Conference.

1661 June. Bombay ceded by Portugal to England.

1661 June. Treaty at Kardis between Sweden and Russia.

1661 August. Peace between the United Provinces and Portugal.

1661 September. Reestablishment of the Episcopal Church of Scotland decreed.

1661 November. Ormond appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

1662 Company) incorporated.

1662 Death of Pascal.

1662 Restoration of the Scottish Bishops.

1662 The English Company of Royal Adventurers trading to Africa (third Guinea

1662 The Royal Society of London incorporated by charter,

1662 January. Death of John Keményi.

1662 May. English Act of Uniformity.

1662 June. Reinstitution of lay patronage in Scotland.

1662 August. Secession of St Bartholomew's Day.

1662 September. Bill for the Settlement of Ireland.

1662 December. Treaty between Portugal and the United Provinces.

1663 English expedition to Guinea Coast.

1663 Milton finishes Paradise Lost.

1663 The Turks under Ahmad Kiuprili advance upon western Hungary.

1663-8 Butler's Hudibras.

1663 October. Settlement between Prussian Estates and the Great Elector.

1664 Aug. Defeat of the Turks by Montecuculi at St Gothard. Peace of Vasvar.

1664 English captui'e of New Amsterdam (New York).

1664 First Conventicle Act passed.

1664 First French Company trading with India founded. Colbert's First Tariff.

1664 French West African Company merged into the French West India Company.

1664 February. English seizure of Dutch possessions on the west coast or Africa.

1665 Bishop of Munster declares war against United Provinces.

1665 Death of Philip IV of Spain.

1665 Five Mile Act passed. The Plague in London. Dryden's Essay of Dramatic Poesy.

1665-6 Newton's discoveries in mathematics, and as to the law of Universal Gravitation.

1665 January. De Ruyter recovers Goree from English occupation.

1665 March. War between England and the United Provinces.

1665 June. Battle of Lowestoft.

1665 September. Death of Philip IV of Spain. Accession of Charles II.

1665 December. Bill for Explanation of the Act of Settlement of Ireland.

1666 Religious rising in Scotland put down at Rullion Green.

1666 Treaty of Cleves. Cleves, Mark, and Ravensberg secured by Brandenburg.

1666-7 The Raskol (great schism) in the Russian Church breaks out.

1666 January. France declares war against England.

1666 June. The "Four Days' Battle" between the English and Dutch.

1666 September. The Great Fire of London.

1666 October. "Quadruple Alliance" of Holland, Denmark, Brandenburg and Brunswick-Lüneburg.

1667 Colbert issues his increased tariff.

1667 Treaty of Andrusovo between Poland and Russia.

1667 February. Dutch conquest of Tobago.

1667 March. Secret treaty between Charles II and Louis XIV.

1667 May. War of Devolution between Louis XIV and the Spanish Netherlands.

1667 June. Dutch fleet in the Medway.

1667 July. Peace of Breda between England and the United Provinces.

1667 August. Fall of Clarendon.

1668 Bombay handed over to the English East India Company.

1668 Peace between Spain and Portugal. Spanish surrender of Portugal.

1668 Triple Alliance of England, United Provinces, and Sweden, against France.

1668 Triple Alliance.

1668 January. Secret treaty between Louis XIV and the Emperor Leopold.

1668 February. French conquest of Franche Comté.

1668 May. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle between the Allies and France.

1669 Abdication of John Casimir of Poland; election of Michael Wisniowiecki.

1669 Fall of Candia, followed by the cession of Crete to the Turks.

1669 Stensen lectures at Paris on the Anatomy of the Brain.

1669 The "Peace of Clement IX" accorded to the Jansenists.

1670 Administration of the Leeward and Windward Islands settled by the English Government.

1670 Anglo-French naval defeat in Southwold Bay.

1670 British capture of Jamaica recognised by Spain.

1670 Invasion of the United Provinces by Louis XIV.

1670 John Sobieski elected King of Poland.

1670 Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes. Quesnel's Reflexions Morales sur le Nouveau Testament. Malpighi and Grew on Structural Botany.

1670 Publication of Pascal's Pensées.

1670 Second Conventicle Act passed.

1670 Spinoza's Tractatus Theologico-Politieus. Bossuet's Exposition de la Doctrine Catholique.

1670 War between England and the United Provinces.

1670 February. Accession of Christian V in Denmark and Norway. Administration of Griffenfeld.

1670 February. William III of Orange Captain-General of the Dutch Union.

1670 March. Charles ll's Declaration of Indulgence.

1670 April. War between France and the United Provinces.

1670 May-June. Secret Treaty of Dover between Louis XIV and Charles II.

1670 May. Treaty between Louis XIV and Sweden.

1672 Leibniz' Concilium Aegyptiacum.

1672 Third Guinea Company merged in Royal African Company.

1672-8 War between Turkey and Poland.

1672 June-October. Coalition of the Hague between the Emperor, Brandenburg and Holland.

1672 July. William of Orange proclaimed Stadholder of Holland and Zeelaud

1672 August. Murder of John and Cornelius de Witt at the Hague.

1672 October. Treaty of Buczácz between Poland and Turkey.

1673-4 Spread of the Second Imperial Coalition against France.

1673 March. Charles' Declaration of Indulgence cancelled. Test Act passed.

1673 June. Dutch naval successes at Schooneveld. French take Maestricht.

1673 August. Battle of the Texel.

1673 November. The Turks defeated by John Sobieski at Khoczim.

1674 February. Treaty of London between England and the United Provinces.

1674 August. Indecisive battle of Seneff between William of Orange and Condé.

1674 December. War between Sweden and Brandenburg.

1675 Bishop Croft's Naked Truth. Dryden's Aurengzelte produced.

1675 Committee of the Privy Council supersedes Council of Trade and Plantations.

1675 Swedish invasion of Brandenburg.

1675 Victory of the Great Elector over the Swedes at Fehrbellm.

1675-9 War of Scania between Denmark and Sweden.

1675 January. Defeat of the Great Elector at Colmar.

1675 April. Dutch victory off Messina. Death of de Ruyter.

1675 June. Treaty between France and Poland.

1675 July. Death of Turenne.

1675 August. Sobieski defeats the Turks at Lemberg.

1676 Accession of the Tsar Theodore III.

1676 Death of the Grand Vezir Ahmad Kiuprili ; succession of Kara Mustafa.

1676 June. Danish-Dutch naval victory over the Swedes at Oland.

1676 October. Treaty of Zurawna between Poland and Turkey.

1676 December. Swedish victory at Lund.

1677 War between Russia and Turkey.

1677 April. Defeat of Orange at Montcassel.

1677 July. Victory of Charles XI of Sweden at Landskrona.

1677 November. Marriage of William of Orange with Princess Mary of England.

1678 (to February, 1679). Peace of Nymegen.

1678 Cudworth's Intellectual System. Dryden's All for Love produced.

1678 Emeric Tökölyi becomes the Hungarian national leader.

1678 The French obtain the cession of Goree.

1678 August. First denunciation of the Popish Plot.

1679 Suppression of the Scottish Covenanting revolt at Bothwell Brigg.

1679 The Habeas Corpus Act passed.

1679 Treaty of Lund between Denmark and Sweden.

1679 May. Introduction of the Exclusion Bill.

1679 June. Treaty of St Germain-en-Laye between Brandenburg and Sweden.

1680 Archbishopric of Magdeburg incorporated with Brandenburg.

1680 Declaration of Sanquhar.

1680 Filmer's Patriarcha published.

1680 The Exclusion Bill thrown out.

1680 Treaty of Bakchi-serai between Russia and Turkey.

1681 Filmer's Patriarcha. Dryden's Spanish Friar and Absalom and Achitophel.

1681 Peace between Russia and Turkey.

1681 September. French seizure of Strassburg and Casale.

1681 October. Assembly of Gallican Clergy.

1682 Accession of Peter the Great. The Tsarevna Sophia Regent.

1682 Brandenburg African Trading Company established at Königsberg.

1682 Outbreak of war hetween Austria and the Turks.

1682 Privileges of City of London and other towns attacked by the Crown.

1682-90 Sir John Child Governor of Bombay.

1682 March. The French Assembly of Clergy defines liberties of Gallican Church.

1683 Death of Colbert.

1683 Siege of Vienna.

1683 February. Association against France formed at the Hague.

1683 June. Rye House plot discovered. Execution of Russell and Sidney.

1683 July. Siege of Vienna by the Turks begun.

1683 September. Relief of Vienna by John Sobieski.

1683 December. War between France and Spain.

1684 Spener's Klagen.

1684 The Apologetical Declaration of the Scottish recusants.

1684 March. The Holy League between Austria, Poland, and Venice, against the Turks.

1684 August. Truce of Ratisbon between France and the Empire.

1685 Recapture of Neuhäusel from the Turks.

1685-8 Reforms in English naval administration.

1685 February. Death of Charles II of England and accession of James II.

1685 June. Risings of Monmouth and Argyll.

1685 July. Monmouth defeated at Sedgmoor and executed.

1685 August. Treaty of alliance between Great Elector and United Provinces.

1685 October. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

1685 November. Edict of Potsdam.

1686 Leibniz' on the Calculus.

1686 March. Treaty of alliance between the Emperor and the Great Elector.

1686 July. Formation of the Augsburg Alliance.

1686 September. Buda recovered from the Turks.

1687 Deposition of Mohammad IV and accession of Solyman II.

1687 Dryden's Hind and Panther.

1687 Halifax' Letter to a Dissenter.

1687 Newton's Principia. Pufendorf's De habita religionis ad vitam civilem.

1687 January. Tyrconnel made Viceroy in Ireland.

1687 April. The Declaration of Indulgence issued.

1687 Feb.-May. Diplomatic mission of Dykvelt in England.

1687 August. Turkish overthrow at Harkány, near Mohács.

1687 September. Venetian siege and conquest of Athens.

1687 November. Fagel's letter on Declaration of Indulgence.

1687 December. Restoration of Austrian ascendancy in Hungary. Coronation of Archduke Joseph.

1688 Army of Louis XIV advances on the middle Rhine.

1688 Bossuet's Histoire des Variations des Églises Protestantes.

1688 Declaration of Indulgence ordered to be read in churches.

1688 Petition of the Seven Bishops against reading of Declaration.

1688 Trial and acquittal of the Seven Bishops. Invitation to William, Prince of Orange.

1688 May. Death of the Great Elector.

1688 June. Birth of Prince James Edward (afterwards the "Old Pretender").

1688 September. The Emperor takes Belgrade.

1688 November. Landing of William of Orange at Torbay.

1688 December. William of Orange enters London. Flight of James II, and fall of the House of Stewart.

1689 Bill of Rights. Locke's On Toleration published.

1689 Highland rising under Dundee put down at Killiecrankie.

1689 James enters Dublin.

1689 Locke's Two Treatises on Government.

1689 Mustafa Kiuprili Grand Vezir.

1689 Parliament summoned by James meets at Dublin.

1689 The Scottish Convention issues Declaration offering the crown to William and Mary.

1689 The Toleration Act passed.

1689 The siege of Derry begun.

1689 William and Mary proclaimed King and Queen of England.

1689 February. Declaration of Right.

1689 March. Rout of the Irish Protestants at Dromore.

1689 April. Outbreak of war between France and Spain.

1689 May. The Grand Alliance formed.

1689 July. Belief of Derry. Defeat of James' troops at Newtown Butler.

1689 October. Bill of Rights passed.

1690 Battle of the Boyne. Second flight of James to France.

1690 Defeat of Anglo-Dutch fleet off Beachy Head.

1690 Permanent establishment of the English factory at Calcutta.

1690 Presbyterianism established in national Church of Scotland.

1690 Turkish reconquest of Servia, Widdin, and Belgrade.

1690 July. French victory at Fleurus.

1691 April. French capture of Mons.

1691 July. Capture of Athlone by William's forces. Battle of Aughrim.

1691 August. Victory of Lewis of Baden at Szalankemen. Death of Mustafa Kiuprili.

1691 October. Treaties of Limerick.

1692 Invasion of Dauphiné by Victor Amadeus of Savoy.

1692 February. Massacre of Glencoe.

1692 May. Anglo-Dutch naval victory of La Hogue.

1692 June. French capture of Namur.

1692 August. William III defeated at Steinkirke. British repulse at St Malo.

1693 Defeat of William at Neerwinden.

1693 French victory of Marsaglia and invasion of Piedmont.

1693-4 Foundation of the National Debt and of the Bank of England.

1694 Foundation of University of Halle.

1694 The Triennial Act passed.

1694 December. Death of Mary, Queen of England.

1695 Accession of the Sultan Mustafa II.

1695 Press Licensing Act dropped. Freedom of the Press established.

1695 William recaptures Namur.

1695-1700 Initiation and ultimate failure of the Darien scheme.

1696 Conquest of Azoff by Peter the Great.

1696 Death of John Sobieski of Poland.

1696 Frederick Augustus, Elector of Saxony, elected King Augustus II of Poland.

1696 January. The Recoinage Act passed.

1696 February. English "Assassination Plot" discovered.

1696 August. The Duke of Savoy goes over to France.

1697 Accession of Augustus II of Poland.

1697 Death of Charles XI of Sweden and accession of Charles XII.

1697 Fenelon's Explanation of the Maxims of the Saints. Dryden's Alexander s * east.

1697 Peace of Ryswyk.

1697 The Muscovite Embassy to the West.

1697 September. Defeat of the Turks at Zenta by Prince Eugene.

1698 British African trade thrown open.

1698 J. Collier's Short View of the Profaneness and Immorality of the English, Stage.

1698 New English East India Company (General Society) incorporated.

1698 June. Revolt of the Russian Strieltzy.

1698 October. First Treaty of Partition.

1699 Beginning of the great administrative reforms of Peter the Great.

1699 January. Peace of Carlowitz.

1699 February. Death of Electoral Prince Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria.

1699 August. Accession of Frederick IV of Denmark and Norway.

1699 September. Alliance between Denmark and Poland against Sweden.

1699 November. Russia joins the coalition against Sweden.

1700 Battle of Narva.

1700 Defoe's Two Great Questions Considered.

1700 Foundation of Berlin Academy of Sciences.

1700 April. Act of Resumption of Irish grants.

1700 May. Second Treaty of Partition.

1700 August. Peace of Traventhal between Sweden and Denmark.

1700 November. Death of Charles II of Spain.

1701 Brandenburg-Prussia gains the privilegium de non appellando.

1701 Death of James II. Recognition of his son as King by Louis.

1701 Defoe's True-born Englishman.

1701 The Act of Settlement passed.

1701 January. Coronation of Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg as Frederick I, King in Prussia.

1701 February. Dutch Barrier fortresses occupied by French troops.

1701 June. Act of Settlement.

1701 July. Outbreak of the War in Italy.

1701 August. Grand Alliance completed.

1701 September. Death of James II. Louis XIV recognises "James III."

1701 September. The Grand Alliance formed.

1702 Godolphin and Marlborough's Tory Ministry formed.

1702-5 Rising in the Cevennes.

1702 February. Prince Eugene's raid on Cremona.

1702 March. Death of William III. Accession of Anne.

1702 March. Death of William III. Accession of Anne.

1702 May. Charles XII in Warsaw.

1702 July. Victory of Charles XII at Klissow. Capture of Cracow.

1702 August. Failure of the English expedition against Cadiz.

1702 September. Marlborough reduces Venloo.

1702 October. Marlborough reduces Ruremonde and Liege. Rooke's capture of the Plate fleet.

1703 Act of Security passed by the Scottish Parliament.

1703 Methuen Treaty between England and Portugal.

1703 April. Victory of Charles XII at Pultusk.

1703 May. Portugal joins the Grand Alliance. Vienna threatened by Villars.

1703 September. French victory at Höchstädt.

1703 December. The Methuen Treaty between England and Portugal.

1704 Act of Security (Scotland) receives Royal Assent.

1704 Battle of Blenheim.

1704 The English Alien Act passed.

1704-5 Resignation of Tory Ministers. Whig additions to the Government.

1704 January. Deposition of Augustus of Poland.

1704 May-June. Marlborough's march to the Danube.

1704 July. Stanislaus Leszczynski elected King of Poland.

1704 August. Capture of Gibraltar, and naval battle off Velez Malaga.

1704 November. Convention of Ilbersheim.

1705 June. Swedish victory at Gemaurhof.

1705 October. Peterborough's reduction of Barcelona. Catalonia and Valencia adopt the Habsburg cause.

1706 Peace of Altranstàdt between Sweden and Augustus of Saxon

1706 February. Swedish victory at Fraustadt. Russian retreat.

1706 May. Battle of Ramillies.

1706 August. First negotiations for peace opened by Louis.

1706 September. Eugene's victory at Turin. French evacuation of Piedmont.

1706 October. Swedish defeat at Kalisch.

1707 Peter the Great introduces into Russia the "civil script."

1707 Prussia acquires Tecklenburg, Neuchátel, and Valengin.

1707 Vauban's Projet d'une dime royale. Death of Vauban,

1707 March. Convention of Milan. The French abandon northern Italy.

1707 March.Act of Union between England and Scotland passed.

1707 April. Defeat of the Allies at Almanza.

1707 May. Act of Union of England and Scotland comes into force.

1707 August. "Perpetual Alliance" between Sweden and Prussia.

1707 August. Failure of Eugene's attempt on Toulon.

1708 English capture of Minorca.

1708 Permanent union of the two English East India Companies.

1708 Victory of Charles XII at Holowczyn.

1708-10 Civil war in San Paulo. Portuguese organisation of district.

1708 July. Battle of Oudenarde.

1708 September. Swedish rout at Lyesna.

1708,10-9 Oct.-Feb. March of Charles XII through Severia and the Ukraine.

1709 Charles XII lays siege to Poltawa.

1709 First Dutch Barrier Treaty.

1709-14 Charles XII in Turkey.

1709 May. Peace negotiations. The "Preliminaries" rejected by Louis.

1709 June. Battle of Poltawa. Revival of the northern league against Sweden.

1709 September. Battle of Malplaquet.

1709 October. Alliance between Russia and Denmark against Sweden.

1710 Impeachment of Sacheverell and fall of the Whigs. Tory Ministry of Harley and St John formed.

1710 Indecisive battle of Villa Viciosa.

1710 South Sea Company established.

1710 March. Negotiations at Gertruydenberg.

1710 July. Victory of the Allies at Almenara.

1710 August. Victory of the Allies at Saragossa.

1710 December. Defeat of the Allies at Brihuega.

1711 Plague in Copenhagen.

1711 March. War between Russia and Turkey.

1711 April. Death of the Emperor Joseph I.

1711 August. Peace of the Pruth between Russia and Turkey.

1711 October. Election of the Emperor Charles VI.

1711 December. Dismissal of Marlborough.

1712 French victory at Denain.

1712 Second Vilmergen War in Switzerland.

1712 Swift's Remarks on the Barrier Treaty.

1712 Toleration Act (Scotland). Patronage restored in Scotland.

1712 January. Opening of peace negotiations at Utrecht.

1712 February. Death of the Duke of Burgundy.

1712 March. Death of the Duke of Britanny.

1712 July. Separate armistice between England and France.

1712 December. Swedish victory over the Danes at Gadebusch.

1713 Dumont's Letter to an Englishman.

1713 Issue of the Bull Unigenitus.

1713 Peace of Utrecht.

1713 January. Second Dutch Barrier Treaty.

1713 February. Accession of Frederick William I of Prussia.

1713 February. Death of Frederick I of Prussia.

1713 April. Peace of Utrecht.

1713 May. Swedish capitulation at Oldensworth.

1713 July. Peace of Adrianople.

1714 Marriage of Philip V with Elisabeth Farnese.

1714 March. Battle of Storkyro. Russia overruns Finland,

1714 March. Peace of Rastatt.

1714 May. The Schism Act.

1714 June. Death of Electress Sophia.

1714 August. Death of Anne. Accession of George I.

1714 August. Death of Queen Anne. Accession of George I.

1714 September. Peaee of Baden.

1715 Bremen and Verden ceded to Hanover by Denmark.

1715 Orleans. Jacobite rising in Scotland.

1715 February. Peace between Spain and Portugal.

1715 April. Third Dutch Barrier Treaty signed.

1715 May-June. Third Coalition against Sweden between Great Britain (Hanover), Denmark, and Prussia.

1715 September. Death of Louis XIV.

1715 September. Death of Louis XIV. Accession of Louis XV. Regency of

1715 November. Third Dutch Barrier Treaty.

1715 December. Commercial Treaty between Spain and Great Britain.

1715 December. Fall of Stralsund.

1716 Septennial Act.

1716 Treaty of Danzig between Russia and Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

1716 Turkish conquest of Morea.

1716-7 Russian expedition into Central Asia.

1716 February. Commercial Treaty between Great Britain and the Dutch.

1716 May. Law founds his Bank in France.

1716 June. Treaty of Westminster.

1717 Alberoni conquers Sardinia.

1717 Congress of Passarowitz meets.

1717 Victory of Prince Eugene over the Turks at Belgrade.

1717 January. Triple Alliance. Breach between Great Britain and Sweden.

1717 August. Louisiana Company founded by Law.

1718 Quadruple Alliance.

1718 The viceroyalty of New Granada created.

1718 July. Peace of Passarowitz.

1718 August. Cellamare's plot discovered. Franco-British invasion of Spain. I

1718 August. Spanish fleet destroyed off Cape Passaro by Byng.

1718 November. Death of Charles XII.

1718 December. Death of Charles XII of Sweden.

1718 December. Great Britain declares war on Spain.

1719 Act empowering English Parliament to legislate for Ireland.

1719 First Russian envoy in Pékin.

1719 First Treaty of Vienna.

1719-20 Nov.-Feb. Treaties of Stockholm.

1719 January. France declares war on Spain.

1719 November. Treaty of Stockholm.

1719 December. Fall of Alberoni.

1720 Collapse of Law's System. Plague at Marseilles.

1720 Pragmatic Sanction recognised by Austrian Estates.

1720 Spain, Denmark, and Poland accede to Quadruple Alliance.

1720 July. Peace of Frederiksborg between Sweden and Denmark.

1720 August. Height of South Sea mania.

1721 March. Treaty of Madrid. Acceded to by Great Britain (June).

1721 August. Peace of Nystad between Sweden and Russia.

1721 August. Peace of Nystad.

1721 October. Peter the Great declared Emperor.

1722 Moravian community founded at Herrnhut.

1722 Ostend Company chartered.

1722 Russian expansion in the Caspian provinces of Persia.

1722 Walpole First Lord of Treasury. "Atterbury's" plot.

1723 December. Death of Duke of Orleans.

1724 January. Abdication of Philip V.

1724 January. Congress of Cambray meets.

1724 February. Treaty of Stockholm between Russia and Sweden.

1724 April. First Drapier's Letter.

1724 June. Treaty of Constantinople between Russia and Turkey.

1724 August. Death of Don Luis. Philip V reascends Spanish throne.

1725 Anglo-Franco-Prussian Treaty of Herrenhausen (Hanoverian Alliance).

1725 January. Death of Peter the Great.

1725 February. Accession of Catharine I.

1725 April. Treaty of Vienna.

1725 September. Marriage of Louis XV with Maria Leszczynska.

1725 September. Treaty of Herrenhausen.

1725 November. Secret Austro-Spanish marriage treaty negotiated by Ripperdá.

1726 Denmark and Sweden join Herrenhausen Alliance.

1726 Fleury First Minister of France.

1726 Foundation of Monte Video.

1726 August. Russia joins Austro-Spanish League.

1726 September. Hozier blockades Portobello.

1726 October. Treaty of Wusterhausen.

1727 First Indemnity Act for Nonconformists.

1727 February. Spain declares war against England.

1727 April. Treaty of Copenhagen between Denmark, England, and France.

1727 May. Death of Catharine I. Accession of Peter II.

1727 May. Peace preliminaries signed at Paris.

1728 March. Convention of the Pardo. Congress of Soissons meets (June).

1729 Methodist movement begins at Oxford.

1729 Treaty of Seville between England, France, and Spain,

1729 September. Birth of the Dauphin.

1729 November. Treaty of Seville. End of Ostend Company.

1730 Death of Frederick IV of Denmark. Accession of Christian VI.

1730 January. Death of Peter II and accession of Anne.

1730 May. Accession of Tsarina Anne.

1731 Death of Antonio Farnese, Duke of Parma.

1731 England and Holland guarantee Pragmatic Sanction.

1731 Ostend Company suppressed.

1731 January. Spain denounces Treaty of Seville.

1731 March. Treaty of Vienna. Acceded to by Spain (July).

1732 Don Carlos Duke of Parma.

1733 Second election of Stanislaus Leszczynski. Polish Succession War begins.]

1733 Walpole's Excise Act withdrawn. Molasses Act.

1733 May. Spain attacks Austrian Italy. Battle of Bitouto.

1733 September. Treaty of Turin.

1733 November. Treaty of the Escurial (First Pacte de Famille).

1735 Don Carlos crowned King of the Two Sicilies.

1735 Porteous riots in Edinburgh.

1735 Preliminaries of Vienna feigned.

1735 Russo-Turkish War begins.

1735 January. S. Leszczynski abdicates. Augustus III recognised King of Poland.!

1737 Fall of Chauvelin.

1738 Third Treaty of Vienna.

1738-72 Strife of the Caps and Hats in Sweden.

1738 January. Convention of the Pardo.

1739 Vienna Treaty acceded to by Sardinia (February), Spain and Naples (June).

1739 September. Peace of Belgrade. Peace of Constantinople.

1739 October. War between Spain and Great Britain declared.

1739 December. Vernon takes Portobello.

1740 Death of Charles VI. Austrian Succession War begins.

1740 May. Death of Frederick William I of Prussia. Accession of Frederick II.

1740 October. Death of Tsarina Anne. Accession of Ivan VI.

1740 December. Frederick II invades Silesia.

1741 Siege of Cartagena de las Indias.

1741 April. Battle of Mollwitz.

1741 June. Treaty of Breslau.

1741 July. Sweden declares war on Russia. Battle of Vilmanstrand.

1741 October. Convention of Klein-Schnellendorf.

1741 December. Frederick II invades Moravia. Accession of Tsarina Elizabeth.

1742 Austro-Spanish hostilities begin in Italy.

1742 Fall of Walpole.

1742 May. Battle of Chotusitz.

1743 January. Death of Fleury.

1743 February. Battle of Campo Santo.

1743 June. Preliminaries of Breslau. Battle of Dettingen.

1743 July. Peace of Berlin.

1743 August. Peace of Abo.

1743 October. Treaty of Fontainebleau (Second Pacte de Famille).

1743 December. Belleisle's retreat from Prague.

1744 War between Great Britain and France declared.

1744 May. Union of Frankfort. Frederick II invades Bohemia

1745 Battle of Kesselsdorf. Saxony accedes to Convention of Hanover.

1745 Treaty of Dresden between Austria and Prussia.

1745 January. Death of Charles Albert of Bavaria.

1745 March. Treaty of Füssen.

1745 May. Battle of Fontenoy.

1745 June. Austro-Rusbian Alliance.

1745 July. Jacobite rising.

1745 December. Charles Edward retreats from Derby.

1746 Death of Christian VI of Denmark. Accession of Frederick V.

1746 January-March. Sardinian alliance with France.

1746 February. Marshal Saxe takes Brussels.

1746 April. Alliance of Denmark and France. Battle of Culloden.

1746 June. Cape Breton taken by the British.

1746 July. Death of Philip V of Spain. Accession of Ferdinand VI.

1746 August. Battle of Roucoux.

1746 September. Madras taken by the French.

1747 May. William IV proclaimed Stadholder.

1747 July. Battle of Lauffeldt. Battle of Exilles.

1748 Bergen-op-Zoom taken by the French.

1748 Treaties of Aix-la-Chapelle signed by France and Great Britain (April) and by Spain (October).

1749 Bolingbroke's Idea of a Patriot King published.

1749 Dupleix secures French control of the Carnatic.

1749 Treaty of Madrid.

1749 October. Treaty of Aquisgran.

1750 Colonial Manufactures Prohibition Bill.

1750 Rousseau's first Discours.

1751 Sieges of Trichinopoly and Arcot.

1752 June. Treaty of Aranjuez.

1754 Representatives of the English North American colonies meet at Albany.

1755 Newcastle-Fox Ministry.

1755 July. Braddock's disaster before Port Duquesne.

1755 September. Anglo-Russian Convention of St Petersburg (ratified Feb. 1756).

1755 November. Earthquake of Lisbon.

1756 Acadia cleared of French settlers. French take Oswego.

1756 January. Convention of Westminster.

1756 May. Treaty of Versailles. Minorca taken by French.

1756 May. War declared by England against France.

1756 June. Calcutta seized by Siráj-ud-daulá.

1756 August. Frederick II invades Saxony. Battle of Lobositz.

1756 December. Russia accedes to Treaty of Versailles.

1757 Jan.-Feb. Clive takes Calcutta, Hooghly and Chandernagore.

1757 Newcastle-Pitt Ministry.

1757 February. Austro-Russian Convention.

1757 Battles of Prague (May), Kolin (June), Hastenbeck (July), Gross-Jägerndorf (August); Convention of Klosterzeven (September); battles of Rossbach and Breslau (November), Leuthen (December).

1757 May. Second Treaty of Versailles.

1757 June. Battle of Plassey.

1758 April. First annual convention between Great Britain and Prussia.

1758 June. Louisburg taken by British. Clive Governor of Bengal.

1758 Battles of Zorndorf (August), Hochkirch (October).

1758 November. Choiseul Foreign Minister of France.

1759 Jesuits expelled from Portugal and Brazil.

1759 March-May. Third Treaty of Paris completed.

1759 Battles of Kay, Minden and Quebec (July), Kunersdorf (August).

1759 August. Death of Ferdinand VI of Spain. Accession of Charles III.

1760 Battle of Landshut (June). Fall of Glatz. Battle of Liegnitz (July).

1760 October. Death of George II. Accession of George III.

1760 October. Russian occupation of Berlin.

1760 November. Battle of Torgau.

1761 Spanish invasion of Portugal.

1761 August. Treaty of San Ildefonso (Third Pacte de Famille}.

1761 October. Fall of Pitt.

1762 Death of Tsarina Elizabeth. Accession of Peter III.

1762 Rousseau's Emile published.

1762 January. War declared against Spain by Great Britain.

1762 British capture of Martinique (February), Havana (June), Manila (October).

1762 May. Prussia makes peace with Russia and Sweden.

1762 May. Spanish invasion of Portugal.

1762 Battles of Wilhelmsthal (June), Freiberg (October).

1762 June. Russo-Prussian Alliance. Accession of Catharine II.

1762 November. Preliminaries of Fontainebleau signed.

1763 First Whiteboy outbreaks in Ireland.

1763 February. Peace of Hubertusburg. Peace of Paris.

1763 April. Resignation of Bute. Proceedings against Wilkes begin.

1764 1765 Clive's second governorship of Bengal begins.

1764 Battle of Buxar.

1764 Jesuits expelled from France.

1764 March. Stamp Act.

1764 August. Death of Emperor Francis I. Accession of Joseph IL

1764 September. Stanislaus Poniatowski elected King of Poland.

1766 Lorraine annexed to France.

1766 Stamp Act repealed. Chatham-Grafton Ministry formed.

1767 Jesuits expelled from Spain.

1767 Provisional Treaty of Exchange of Copenhagen.

1768 Confederation of Bar. Russian invasion of Poland.

1768 Nullum Tempus Act.

1768 Purchase of Corsica from Genoa by France.

1768 Turkey declares war on Russia.

1769 January. Letters of Junius begin.

1769 February. Wilkes expelled from House of Commons.

1769 August. Interview of Joseph II with Frederick II at Neisse.

1770 January. North's Ministry begins. Burke's Thoughts on the Present Discontents.

1770 January. Spanish attack on English settlement in the Falkland Isles.

1770 May. Marriage of the Dauphin Louis with Marie-Antoinette.

1770 August. Destruction of Turkish fleet by Russians at Tchesme.

1770 December. Fall of Choiseul.

1771 Death of Adolphus Frederick of Sweden. Accession of Gustavus III.

1771 First Roman Catholic Relief Act (Ireland).

1771 Russian occupation of the Crimea.

1771 January. Exile of the Parlement of Paris.

1772 Coup d'état of Gustavus III in Sweden. Catastrophe of Struensee in Denmark.

1772 Ministry of Guldberg begins.

1772 Royal Marriage Act.

1772 February. Secret Treaty of St Petersburg.

1772 August. First Partition of Poland.

1773 Alliance of France and Sweden.

1773 Insurrection of Pugachoff in Russia.

1773 North's Regulating Act for India. Warren Hastings Governor-General.

1773 August. Suppression of the Jesuit Order.

1774 Boston Riot. Boston Port Act.

1774 May. Louis XV succeeded by Louis XVI. Turgot Finance Minister (Aug.).

1774 July. Battle of Shumla. Peace of Kutchuk-Kainardji.

1775 Skirmishes at Lexington (April)j and Bunker Hill (June).

1775 July. Spanish attack on Algiers.

1776 American Declaration of Independence.

1776 Prohibitory Act against American commerce.

1776 Spanish attack on Sacramento.

1777 February. Joseph I of Portugal succeeded by Maria I. Fall of Pombal.

1777 June. Necker Director-General of French Finances.

1777 December. Death of Elector Maximilian Joseph of Bavaria.

1778 Savile's Roman Catholic Relief Act.

1778-84 War with Haidar Ali in India.

1778 February. Treaty of Paris between France and America.

1778 March. Treaty of the Pardo between Spain and Portugal.

1778 July. Bavarian Succession War begins.

1778 September. Dutch-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce.

1779 May. Peace of Teschen.

1779 June. Spain declares war on England. Siege of Gibraltar begins.

1779 December. English restrictions on Irish trade abolished.

1780 Austro-Russian Alliance against Turkey.

1780 January. Rodney relieves Gibraltar.

1780 February. First Armed Neutrality mooted.

1780 November. Death of Maria Theresa. Joseph II sole Emperor.

1780 December. Great Britain declares war on the Dutch.

1781 De Grasse takes Tobago and blockades Chesapeake Bay.

1781 Rodney takes Dutch West Indian Islands.

1781 June. Joseph II issues Patent of Tolerance.

1781 July. Battle of Porto Novo (July) ; battle of Dogger Bank (August).

1781 October. Capitulation of Yorktown.

1781 November. Joseph II abolishes serfdom.

1782 February. Minorca and West Indian Islands taken by French.

1782 March. Pius VI visits Vienna. Peruvian rebellion against Spain suppressed.

1782 April. Evacuation of the Barrier fortresses.

1782 April. Grattan's Declaration of Rights. Irish legislative independence.

1782 April. Rodney defeats de Grasse in the West Indies.

1782 August-September. French victorious in the East Indies.

1782 October. Howe relieves Gibraltar.

1782 November. Preliminaries of Peace accepted by Great Britain and America.

1783 September. Peace of Versailles.

1783 December. Fox' India Bill rejected by House of Lords. Fall of North.

1784 Pitt's India Act.

1784-97 Ministry of Andreas Bernstorff in Denmark.

1784 January. Peace between Great Britain and the United States ratified.

1785 Denmark attacks Sweden.

1785 February. Return of Warren Hastings.

1785 July. Formation of Fürstenbund.

1785 Sweden declares war on Russia. Naval battle off Hogland (July).

1785 November. Barrier Treaty of 1715 abrogated by Treaty of Fontainebleau.

1786 August. Frederick II of Prussia succeeded by Frederick William II.

1786 September. Commercial Treaty between Great Britain and France.

1787 Disturbances in Austrian Netherlands.

1787 Prussian troops invade Holland. Austria and Russia declare war on Turkey.

1787 Trial of Warren Hastings begins (ends 1795).

1788 April. Anglo-Dutch defensive alliance.

1788 July. Suedo-Russian War.

1788 August. Anglo-Prussian defensive alliance of Berlin.

1788 October. Last Polish (Four Years') Diet meets.

1788 November. Convention of Uddevalla.

1788 December. Death of Charles III of Spain. Accession of Charles IV.

1788 December. Ochakoff taken by Russians.

1789 Insurrection threatened in Hungary.

1789 Swedish Act of Union and Security.

1789 January. Regency debates.

1789 December. Republic declared in Belgium.

1790 Burke's Reflections on the French Revolution.

1790 February. Emperor Joseph II succeeded by Leopold II.

1790 June. Convention of Reichenbach.

1790 July. Nootka Sound dispute between Great Britain and Spain settled.

1790 August. Peace of Värälä between Russia and Sweden.

1791 Act to relieve Roman Catholics in England. (Ireland, 1792, Scotland, 1793.)

1791 Formation of the London Corresponding Society.

1791 Quebec Government Act.

1791-2 Paine's Rights of Man published.

1791 May. Polish Constitution announced.

1792 Fox' Libel Act.

1792 January. Treaty of Jassy.

1792 February. Tipu Sultan defeated at Seringapatam.

1792 March. Assassination of Gustavus III of Sweden.

1792 March. Death of Emperor Leopold II. Accession of Francis II.

1792 April. France declares war on the Emperor.

1793 British conquests from French in India.

1793 January. Execution of Louis XVI.

1793 February. France declares war against Great Britain and Holland.

1796 Death of Tsarina Catharine II. Accession of Paul.

1797 Frederick William II of Prussia succeeded by Frederick William III.

1798 Proclamation of Helvetic Republic.

1863 Renewal of Franco-Swiss alliance of 1602.