CAMENA - Latin Texts of Early Modern Europe

Corpus Automatum Multiplex Electorum Neolatinitatis Auctorum

TERMINI - Structured Vocabulary of Early Modern Knowledge

German Department of Heidelberg University Chair of German Literature (Modern Period)
Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Kühlmann

in Cooperation with

the Information Technology Center and the Library of the University of Mannheim

Funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft


How to understand special signs:


How to download the images of an entire edition:

For downloading entire editions please install a program like WinHTTrack first. Poll WinHTTrack and choose a project name and a path. Click on the buttons 'Next' and 'Web Addresses' and here paste the URL of the title page (e.g. ""); then click on the buttons 'Next' and 'Start'. The completion of the download is indicated by 'Done' in the foot bar. You'll now find the edition in the path you selected.


How to use the machine readable texts:

CAMENA texts are available as

- XML texts (for further information see Regeln für die Abschrift und Auszeichnung der CAMENA-Texte);

- HTML documents with the markup partially converted into layout and format.

The HTML documents are connected with the corresponding image files (see the page numbers).

In order to facilitate text manipulation, please download the HTML document and open it in your word processor. There you can perform further operations with the texts of your choice - such as corrections, annotations, formatting.

For text retrieval the XML version offers special advantages. You can search for specific encoded text elements. You can select structurally or semantically defined features by searching for character strings that correspond to specific tags of our encoding:

<head - finds any heading, for example, the title of a poem. For preliminary material of an edition see
<sp - finds an individual speech in a performance text, or a passage represented as such in a prose or verse text.
<foreign - finds passages in a language other than Latin (partly not transcribed, however).
<q - finds a quotation or apparent quotation.
<reg - finds a reading which has been regularized or normalized, with the original reading rendered in the attribute 'orig'. Note, however, that in CAMENA graphic variants are mostly normalized without explicit statement.
<orig - finds the original form of a reading that has not not been normalized, with the regular form added in the attribute 'reg'. 'transcriber - finds forms corrected and notes added by the trancsriber.
<sic - finds text reproduced although apparently incorrect.
<unclear - finds a passage which could not be deciphered by the transcriber. 'myth - finds a mythological name or reference string. 'rel - finds a religious (biblical, saint's) name or reference string. 'person - finds a name or reference string denoting a person (not pertaining to myth or religion). 'org - finds a name or reference string denoting an institution (not pertaining to myth or religion). 'nation - finds a name or reference string denoting a nation or language (not pertaining to myth or religion). 'place - finds a name or reference string denoting a geographical entity (not pertaining to myth or religion). 'literary - finds a technical term in the field of literature.
<abbr - finds an abbreviation of any sort.


You can also search for poems in specific metres. The following list contains the abbreviations in use in the present state of encoding; the list is being updated as new metres occur. Please note that lyric strophes and compound verses are encoded only under the name of the verse group, but not under the names of the individual verses; so you can search for distichs or sapphic strophes, but not for pentameters of adonei. For a search, put the terms between single quotation marks as shown in the list, for otherwise you will also be shown identical strings of plain text. NB: Only a limited number of texts is metrically indexed!

'adon' = Adonic
'alca' = Alcaic Strophe
'alcm' = Alcmanian Strophe
'ambr' = Hymnus Ambrosianus (Iambic Dimeter in strophes of four lines)
'arc1' = Archilochian Strophe 1
'asc1' = Asclepiadean Strophe 1
'asc2' = Asclepiadean Strophe 2 (engl. system! = 4. Asklepiadeus in German)
'asc3' = Asclepiadean Strophe 3 (engl. system! = 2. Asklepiadeus in German)
'asc4' = Asclepiadean Strophe 4 (engl. system! = 3. Asklepiadeus in German)
'asc5' = Asclepiadean Strophe 5
'brev' = Brevia tantum: distichs of only short syllables (mostly 10 and 14) (this appears to be a fanciful creation of Paul Fleming)
'chel' = Choliambus + Elegiambus (a variation of the 3. Archilochian Strophe)
'chol' = Choliambus
'dist' = Elegiac Distich
'hend' = Sapphic Hendecasyllabus
'hexa' = Dactylic Hexameter
'hxhm' = Hexameter with Hemiepes (more frequent in Neo-Latin poetry
than in the classics)
'iadi' = Iambic Dimeter
'iast' = Iambic Strophe (combination of Iambic Trimeter and Dimeter)
'lesa' = Lesser Sapphic Strophe (Aristophanic and Greater Sapphic verses in Tetrastichs)
'molo' = Molossicum (distichs with only long syllables)
'phal' = Phalacean 'pyt1' = Pythiambic Strophe 1 (Daktylic Hexameter and Iambic Dimeter)
'pyt2' = Pythiambic Strophe 2 (Daktylic Hexameter and Iambic Trimeter)
'sapp' = Sapphic Strophe
'sena' = Iambic Senarius
'sept' = Iambic Septenarius
't4t7' = Five Trochaic Quaternarii, followed by one Trochaic Septenarius
't4tr' = Trochaic Quaternarius + Iambic Septenarius
'trca' = Iambic Trimeter Catalectic
'trph' = Iambic Trimeter + Phalacean
'trse' = Trochaic Septenarius (Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic)
'trim' = Iambic Trimeter

In the case of one edition - Weston, Elizabeth Jane: Parthenicon libri III. Prague, 1608 - we have applied an experimental system of thematic indexing of individual texts (poems, letters). The index comprises aspects of form, genre, intent, and subject matter. We have established for this a list of 145 terms which promise to be particularly relevant for an exploration of Neo-Latin poetry. This list respects not only the poetic genre of the texts, but also the occasion for their composition and their subject matter, even if these would not constitute a genre. The list is based mainly on the 'Companion to Neo-Latin Literature' (Part II, 2. Aufl. 1999) by Jozef Ijsewijn and Dirk Sacré and on the 'Sachwörbuch der Literatur' (8. Aufl., 2001) by Gero von Wilpert. The index terms consist each of a single English (occasionally Latin) word. They can be searched using our CAMENA search engine, where they should be entered in the following form: 'academic', 'adaptation', etc. - or abbreviated: 'aca, 'ada, etc.


Generic and index terms are part of the division tags. Normally, they relate to the entire division. Whenever a text does not treat a single topic in one way, however, features of its main parts may have been detailed.

academic (sc. occasional text; akademische Kasualschrift)
adaptation (Bearbeitung; cf. paraphrase)
album (sc. amicorum; Stammbucheintrag; cf. device)
allegory (Allegorie; incl. vision, dream; cf. fantasy)
anacreontic (Anakreontik; cf. love, pastoral)
animal (Tier; incl. beast epic, bestiarium; cf. fable)
apology (Apologie; defense, excuse, begging pardon)
art (Kunst; visual arts, handi-craft, technology, mechanics; incl. ecphrasis)
Bible (Bibel; literature treating biblical themes; cf. Genesis, prophetic, psalm, Mary, Christmas, Christ, heaven)
biography (Biographie)
birthday (Geburtstag; genethliacon; incl. name-day)
blame (Schimpf; polemic, invective, imprecation, dirae)
book (Buch; printing and publishing; cf. studies, poetry)
catalogue (sc. verse; Kataloggedicht)
cento (Cento)
choral (sc. lyric; Chorlied)
Christ (Christus)
Christmas (Weihnachten; incl. advent)
comedy (Komödie)
comparison (Vergleich; cf. debate)
complaint (Klage; cf. funeral, epitaph)
consolation (Trost; cf. funeral)
contrafactum (Kontrafaktur; parodia)
country (sc. life; Landleben; cf. pastoral, peasant, town)
court (Hofleben; cf. courtesy, rule)
courtesy (Anstandsregeln, incl. courtly etiquette, school discipline, table manners)
death (Sterben; incl. ars moriendi, chorea mortualis, vanitas; cf. funeral, consolation)
debate (Synkrisis; agon; cf. comparison)
dedication (Widmung)
device (Devise; symbolum; cf. album)
dialogue (Dialog; cf. debate)
diatribe (Diatribe; e.g. Horace, Sermones; cf. moral)
didactic (lehrhaft; cf. doctrine, moral)
discoveries (Entdeckungen; incl. New World, colonies)
docta (sc. femina; Gelehrte Frau; texts of or about learned women)
doctrine (religiöse Lehre; catechismus, homilia; cf. religion)
drama (Drama; cf. comedy, farce, tragedy, tragicomedy)
ecclesiastic (sc. occasional text; kirchliche Kasualschrift)
echo (sc. song; Echogedicht)
economy (Wirtschaft; incl. home economy, trade, industry)
ego (Autobiographisches; the author talking about himself)
elegy (Elegie; genre, not just metre)
emblem (Emblem; cf. device)
epic (Epos)
epigram (Epigramm)
epigraph (Inschrift, Aufschrift; incl. icon)
epilogue (Epilog)
epistle (Briefgedicht; cf. heroid)
epitaph (Epitaph; funeral inscription)
exemplum (Exempel; cf. parable)
exile (Exil; nostalgia)
fable (Fabel; e.g. Aesopus)
facetiae (Schwank; in prose; cf. farce, lusus)
family (Familie; relations by blood and by marriage; for ancestors use origin)
fantasy (Phantastik)
farce (Posse; dramatic, cf. facetiae; incl. carnival plays, Bacchanalia, Saturnalia; cf. lusus)
farewell (Abschied; apopempticon, propempticon)
farming (Landwirtschaft; Georgica; incl. apiculture)
Fasti (Fasti; description and historical account of religious feasts; e.g. Ovid)
fate (Schicksal; fatum, fortuna, casus)
festival (Festgedicht, -rede, -spiel)
food (Ernährung; drinking and eating; incl. diet)
fool (Narr)
friendship (Freundschaft)
funeral (sc. occasional text; Trauerschrift; incl. epicedium, dirge, threnos, naenia, speech, letter; cf. consolation, death)
game (Spiel; incl. sports)
garden (Garten; horticulture)
Genesis (Genesis; first book of the Old Testament: from the creation to Joseph's death)
heaven (Himmel; paradise, eternal life of the blessed)
Heroides (Heroide; heroic epistle; cf. epistle)
history (Geschichte)
hunting (and fishing; Jagd und Fischfang)
hymn (Hymne; religious in character, strophic in form; cf. ode)
illness (Krankheit; as personal experience; cf. medicine)
invocation (Anrufung; e.g. of the Muse)
Jew (Jude; Judaism and Anti-Judaism)
law (Recht; incl. judicature)
legend (Sage; folk legend; cf. saint, origin)
love (Liebe; erotic; cf. priapic)
lusus (Scherz; playful poem, joke)
macaronic (sc. poetry; Makkaronische Dichtung; incl. barbarolexis)
magic (Magie; incl. witchcraft, alchemy)
Mary (Maria; Holy Virgin)
medicine (Medizin; incl. herbs, drugs; cf. illness)
menippean (sc. satire; Menippea; met='prosimetrum')
moral (Sittenlehre)
mountain (Berg bzw. Gebirge)
music (Musik)
mythos (Mythos)
nature (Natur)
nobility (Adel)
ode (Ode; secular in character, strophic in form; cf. hymn, Pindaric Ode)
order (Ständeordnung; classes, social problems)
origin (Herkunft; ancestors, native place and country; cf. family)
parable (Parabel; cf. exemplum)
paraphrase (Paraphrase; cf. adaptation)
parody (Parodie; literary satire)
Passion (Passion; Christ's Passion, incl. Easter)
pastiche (Pastiche; close imitation, e.g. stilo Tibulliano; cf. parody)
pastoral (sc. poetry; Hirtendichtung; ecloga, idyllium)
pattern (sc. poetry; Figurengedicht; carmen figuratum, technopaignion; incl. acrostic, chronogramm)
peasant (Bauer; cf. country, farming)
philosophy (Philosophie; incl. science; cf. moral)
Pindaric (sc. ode; Pindarische Ode)
plant (Pflanze; botany; cf. farming, garden, medicine)
poetry (Dichtung; on poetry and poets)
politics (Zeitgeschehen; cf. rule)
praise (Lob; encomium, panegyric, congratulation)
prayer (Gebet)
priapic (Priapea; incl. pornography)
prologue (Prolog)
prophetic (prophetisch; incl. apocalyptic)
psalm (Psalm)
region (Landschaft; incl. people)
religion (Religion; cf. doctrine)
request (Bitte)
riddle (Rätsel; incl. logogriphus)
rule (Regiment; incl. speculum principum; cf. court, politics)
sacred (sc. place; Heilige Stätte; incl. Holy Land, pilgrimage, monastery, church)
saint (Heilige; hagiography)
satire (Satire; irony; cf. blame)
scolion (Trinklied)
sea (Meer; incl. navigation)
sensation (Sensation; monstrum, calamitas)
silvae (Silvae; used for a group of poems only)
song (Lied; e.g. vulgaris cantio)
star (Stern; incl. astrology; for astronomy use philosophy)
stone (Stein; gems, minerals, geology; lapidarium)
student (Studentenleben)
studies (Gelehrsamkeit; from grammar school to research; studia humanitatis)
thanks (Dank; eucharisticon)
town (Stadt; laudes urbium; incl. inhabitants)
tragedy (Tragödie)
tragicomedy (Tragikomödie)
translation (Übersetzung)
travel (Reise; itinerary, hodoeporicon)
Turks (Türken, Ottoman Empire, Islam)
utopia (Utopie)
victory (Sieg; epinicium)
vow (Wunsch bzw. Gelübde)
war (Krieg; soldier, army, fortification)
water (Wasser; fountain, spring, river; cf. sea)
wedding (Hochzeit; epithalamium)
witticism (Witz; cf. lusus)
woman (weibliches Geschlecht; cf. docta)
world (Weltbeschreibung; cosmography, geography, ethnography)